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See the current Perl documentation for sprintf.
Here is our local, out-dated (pre-5.6) version:
sprintf - formatted print into a string
sprintf FORMAT, LIST
Perl does its own sprintf() formatting -- it emulates the C function sprintf(), but it doesn't use it (except for floating-point numbers, and even then only the standard modifiers are allowed). As a result, any non-standard extensions in your local sprintf() are not available from Perl.
Perl's sprintf() permits the following universally-known conversions:
%% a percent sign %c a character with the given number %s a string %d a signed integer, in decimal %u an unsigned integer, in decimal %o an unsigned integer, in octal %x an unsigned integer, in hexadecimal %e a floating-point number, in scientific notation %f a floating-point number, in fixed decimal notation %g a floating-point number, in %e or %f notation
In addition, Perl permits the following widely-supported conversions:
%X like %x, but using upper-case letters %E like %e, but using an upper-case "E" %G like %g, but with an upper-case "E" (if applicable) %p a pointer (outputs the Perl value's address in hexadecimal) %n special: *stores* the number of characters output so far into the next variable in the parameter list
Finally, for backward (and we do mean ``backward'') compatibility, Perl permits these unnecessary but widely-supported conversions:
%i a synonym for %d %D a synonym for %ld %U a synonym for %lu %O a synonym for %lo %F a synonym for %f
Perl permits the following universally-known flags between the
space prefix positive number with a space + prefix positive number with a plus sign - left-justify within the field 0 use zeros, not spaces, to right-justify # prefix non-zero octal with "0", non-zero hex with "0x" number minimum field width .number "precision": digits after decimal point for floating-point, max length for string, minimum length for integer l interpret integer as C type "long" or "unsigned long" h interpret integer as C type "short" or "unsigned short"
There is also one Perl-specific flag:
V interpret integer as Perl's standard integer type
Where a number would appear in the flags, an asterisk (``