Note: Updated my previous reply with various proposed solutions.
Indeed, the initial implementation (lock_keys %params, qw/ key1 key2 key3 /;) is equivalent to your solution there. Though, my reading of the OP was that they wanted to use hashes rather than set a bunch of variables like that and lock_keys offers no less protection than the originally proposed Tie::Hash::Vivify.
My personal use of lock_keys is restricted to command line option parsing and some cases where it is "easy" to set up on hashes that may be passed around or used a lot (for example, log file parsing as described in The value of declarations). If I were looking for a complete solution for subroutine arguments I would most likely reach for Params::Validate or similar since once you move beyond lock_keys %params, qw/ key1 key2 key3 /;, the added coding effort for proper validation (vs just verifying key names) isn't much.