Not as such; Perl modules are classes (if you so choose to use them that way, c.f. bless). If you need different kinds of objects, you might want to nest some of them in sub-packages. Below disclaimer fulfilled, I forgot all about Moose and/or other object systems!
Moose and/or other object systems have nothing to do with it. The relation between packages (classes) and files is purely a convention born of convenience. There's absolutely nothing stopping you from putting multiple packages into a single file or splitting a single package across multiple files while using only the core language. It messes with use (which assumes that the file name and package name will be identical) and can thoroughly confuse anyone trying to read/maintain the code in the future, but that's about it.