Try adding grouping parentheses to see what is matching:
my $s = 'abc_IoExtFscInjS_GetGlobalDatasetActvMethod';
print "1 $1\n" if $s =~ /((?!Eth.+cfg)Eth)/i;
print "2 $1\n" if $s =~ /((?!abc_Eth.+cfg)abc_Eth)/i;
You are using the /i modifier which makes the matching case insensitive. The string indeed contains "eth" which is not preceded by "eth.+cfg".
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