What does it mean to "XOR a string by 32 bits"? Does that mean "XOR a 4-byte string with a 32-bit value"? If so,
unpack('N', $s) ^ $val # Big-endian byte order
unpack('V', $s) ^ $val # Little-endian byte order
What does it mean to "take the inverse of the XOR result as a hexadecimal value"? Hexadecimal is a string representation of a number, and strings don't have inverses.
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