With a pre-defined list of acceptable file types, you can ensure that the file extension is what you expect, but even that isn't enough, as MSIE frequently second-guesses the web server-provided MIME type. A more thorough solution would be for you to use something like File::MMagic to ensure the contents are of a pre-defined acceptable MIME type as well.
Unfortunately, short of installing a virus scanner in line with this process, or on a system constantly scanning new uploads for known viruses, there is no easy way for you to catch every conceivable piece of malicious data. Even explicitly allowing, say, JPEG images only, can still open you up to some vulnerabilities with carefully crafted JPEG code.
Another caveat is getting the file someplace "local" to that user. Be wary of using user-provided variables to determine the location on a filesystem a file should reside. See Sanitizing user-provided path/filenames if this is the case here.
I might also use umask instead of explicitly calling chmod to make changes to the permissions of the file.
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