First, I don't see why you have to put the images in the database. Keep the metadata in the database (path, name, who it belongs to) and keep the data in a normal file. Putting large binary files in a database almost always leads to trouble later on, and makes it impossible to do simple backups, moves, etc.
About your option 3: how are you imagining you would implement this global hash? I think you're forgetting that each apache child process has separate globals with no sharing between them. You would have to share using disk or shared memory (with a module like IPC::MM).
Option 2 will use up a lot of memory quickly. When you load a large image into memory in an apache process (which is what you would be doing here), that process will never shrink back down. The memory can be reused by that process, but it won't be given back to the general pool of free memory. That means that one user sending multiple requests over the course of a session with a 500k image can use up MBs of memory on your server.
Option 1 sounds best. What's the security concern? You wouldn't be using your htdocs directory as temp space, would you? I don't see how anyone would see these images without your intention.
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