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#!/usr/local/bin/perl -w #-*-perl-*- # =pod =head1 NAME B<ping> -- send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts =cut use strict; use Net::Ping; use Getopt::Std; use Sys::Hostname; use vars qw ( %Option %Statistics ); use Time::HiRes qw ( gettimeofday tv_interval ); my ($VERSION) = '$Revision: 1.0 $' =~ /([.\d]+)/; my $warnings = 0; # print statistics on ^C if su +pported #$SIG{INT} = \&PingStatistics; $SIG {__WARN__} = sub { # Print a usuage message on an + unknown if ( substr ( # option. Borrowed from abiga +il. $_ [0], 0, 14 ) eq "Unknown option" ) { die "Usage" }; require File::Basename; $0 = File::Basename::basename ( $0 ); $warnings = 1; warn "$0: @_"; }; $SIG {__DIE__} = sub { require File::Basename; $0 = File::Basename::basename ( $0 ); if ( substr ( $_ [0], 0, 5 ) eq "Usage" ) { die <<EOF; $0 (Perl bin utils) $VERSION $0 [ -aAnq ] [ -c count ] [-i wait ] [ -p protocol ] [ -s packetsize ] [ -w maxwait ] host EOF } elsif ( substr ( $_ [0], 0, 6 ) eq "Exited" ) { die <<EOF; $0: Exited on ^C EOF } die "$0: @_"; }; =pod =head1 SYNOPSIS B<ping> [ -QaAnq ] [ -c count ] [ -i wait ] [ -p protocol ] [ -s packe +tsize ] [ -w maxwait ] I<host> =head1 DESCRIPTION B<ping> tests whether a remote host can be reached from your computer. This simple function is extremely useful as the first step in testing network connections, B<ping> sends a packet to the destination host with a timestamp. The destination host sends the packet back. B<ping> calculates the time difference and displays the data. This test is independent of any application in which the original problem may have been detected. B<ping> allows you to determine whethe +r further testing should be directed toward the network connection or the application. If B<ping> shows that packets can travel to the remote system and back, the isse may be application related. If packets can't make the round trip, the network may be at fault. Test further. The options are as follows: =head2 OPTIONS =head3 note This B<ping> implementation does support ~strange~ behavior some other B<ping>'s exhibit due to answering the question "Where on the command line should the destination host be listed?" Some, like Solaris and Win32, answer this quandry by not caring if the host is the zeroth (first, if you like) option or the last option. We don't care either, and accomplish this zest for life by performing a quick 'begin-with-hyphen?' test on the primary argument. If no hyphen, assume it is the destination host and the remainder are options. IF we do see a hyphen, assume the last argument is the destination host and gather all the prior stuff as options. Please don't think you can stick the destination host anywhere. If it is not at the start or end, it will be ignored and the syntax error will appear. =cut my ( # set up excessive flexibility $IpAddress, # a couple of testers commente +d that $HostName, # allowing the destination hos +t as the $LocalHost # zeroth or else last argument + is a ); # 'good thing' die "Usage" unless $ARGV[0]; # some 'ping' implementations +allow # destination host at the begi +nning unless ( $ARGV[0] =~ /^-/ ) { # or end of the options at the + shell $IpAddress = shift @ARGV; # so, if the first option does + not } # start w/ '-', assume its a h +ostname getopts ( # get our options 'aAc:i:np:qQs:w:', # see the pod doc below for detai +ls \%Option # store them in our hash ); $SIG{'INT'} = \&PingStatistics; $IpAddress ||= $ARGV[0]; # get $ARGV[0] after 'getopts' + if we $HostName = $IpAddress; # didn't get it before $LocalHost = hostname; # we see the '-n' option for b +eauty =pod =over =item -a Audible. Include a bell (ASCII 0x07) character in the output when any packet is received. =item -A Audible. Include a bell (ASCII 0x07) character in the output when any packet is not received. =item -c count Stop after sending (and receiving) count ECHO_RESPONSE packets. By default, B<ping> will go continuously until interrupted. On most systems, the statistics will display on a SIGINT (CTRL-C or ^C). But on systems where SIGINT cannot be trapped (Win32, for example) will simply end. =item -i wait Wait I<wait> miliseconds between sending each packet. The default is to wait for 1000 ms (one second) between each packet. The wait time may be fractional. =item -n Numeric output only. No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses. This option cannot be performed unless the IP address is offered on the command line and will fail otherwise. =item -p protocol B<ping> with I<protocol>. Valid protocols are C<icmp>, C<tcp>, or C<udp> for pings. C<tcp> is unavailable on systems without I<alarm> functionality. C<icmp> is the default. =item -Q Somewhat quiet output. Don't display ICMP error messages that are in response to our query messages. =item -q Quick and very quiet like the default Solaris B<ping> response stating + up or down only. print ReadKey(0) , "\n"; =item -s packetsize Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent. The default is 64. =item -w maxwait Specifies the number of miliseconds to wait for a response to a packet before transmitting the next one. The default is 10000 ms (ten second +s). =back =head2 ERRORS I<unknown host> The destination host's name cannot be resolved by name service into an IP address. I<destination host unreachable> The local system does not have a route to the remote system or the remote system did not respond. The remote host may be down. The remote host may be incorrectly configured. A gateway or curcuit between the local host and the remote host may be down. Test further. =cut die "Usage" unless $IpAddress; # syntax on no hostname die "Usage" if ( # makes no sense to ping by na +me $Option{'n'} # yet not allow an IP lookup and $IpAddress =~ /[A-Za-z]/o ); =pod =head1 EXAMPLES In the following example, B<ping> checks the network status of a host. To check that www.yahoo.com can be reached from almond, we send five 64-byte packets with the following command: C:\> ping -c 5 www.perl.com PING www.perl.com (208.201.239.50) from 192.168.2.101: 64 bytes of da +ta. 64 bytes from 208.201.239.50: icmp_seq=0, time=100.00 ms 64 bytes from 208.201.239.50: icmp_seq=1, time=110.00 ms 64 bytes from 208.201.239.50: icmp_seq=2, time=100.00 ms 64 bytes from 208.201.239.50: icmp_seq=3, time=110.00 ms 64 bytes from 208.201.239.50: icmp_seq=4, time=101.00 ms --- www.perl.com ping Statistics --- 5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received, 0% packet loss round-trip (ms): min/avg/max = 100.00/104.20/110.00 The sequence in which the packets are arriving, as shown by the ICMP sequence number (C<icmp_seq>) displayed for each packet will show dropped packets if the numbering is out of sequence.. How long it takes a packet to make the round trip is displayed in milliseconds after the string C<time=>. The lower the number the better. Note that slow connections, like dialup or VPN, cause high response numbers. The percentage of packets lost is displayed in a summary line at the e +nd of the B<ping> output with the minimum, average, and maximum round-tri +p times. The following is an example of the quick ping: C:\> ping www.perl.com -p www.perl.com is alive. This method simply checks if a host is up or not without the default output's verbosity. This is similar to the default action of Solaris' B<ping>. =head1 ENVIRONMENT The working of B<ping> is not influenced by any environment variables. However, tcp pings cannot function on systems (like Win32) with no I<a +larm> function. =cut if ( # alarm() fails on some system +s, so $Option{'p'} # 0. See if -p was keyed at th +e shell and $Option{'p'} eq "tcp" # 1. Did it have 'tcp' as an a +rg? and ! eval { alarm 1 } # 2. eval 'alarm' for kosher-n +ess ) { print $0 , " protocol " , $Option{'p'} , " is invalid on " , $^O; print " due to a possibly unimplemented alarm() function\n"; die "Usage"; # die if we don't support 'ala +rm' } # --- Defaults --- $Option{'c'} ||= "-1"; # ping continuously $Option{'i'} ||= "1000"; # wait 1 second between pings $Option{'s'} ||= "64"; # send 64 bytes per packet $Option{'w'} ||= "10000"; # wait 10 seconds for a respon +se $Option{'p'} ||= "icmp"; # icmp for ping $Statistics{'i'} = "0"; # stats in a global hash in ca +se of $Statistics{'loss'} = "0"; # a trapped SIGINT so PingStat +istics() $Statistics{'max'} = "0"; # can get at it without passin +g args ( $HostName, # pass $IpAddress, # and return real values $LocalHost # for source and destination ) = ResolveName ( $IpAddress, $LocalHost ) unless $Option{'n'}; # unless we see '-n' # setup the 'ping' with protoc +ol, # waittime (remember I work in + ms # tho Net::Ping takes seconds) + divided # by 1000, and packet size my $Ping = Net::Ping->new ( $Option{'p'}, $Option{'w'} / 1000, $Option{'s'} ) # sometimes you must be root-l +ike or die "Cannot ping. Are you priviledged?\n"; $Statistics{'i'} = 0; QuickPing() if $Option{'q'}; # run this subroutine and die +if '-q' FullPing(); # otherwise do a full ping dis +play PingStatistics(); # and give us stats if we prov +ide '-c'; sub FullPing { my $sum = "0"; # tally times for stats # print the header print uc $0 , " " , $HostName , " (" , $IpAddress , ") from " , $L +ocalHost; print ": ", $Option{'s'} , " bytes of data.\n"; # ping until we hit 'count' until ( $Statistics{'i'} == $Option{'c'} ) { # timestamp my $time0 = [gettimeofday]; if ( $Ping->ping ( $IpAddress ) ) { # math for round-trip my $elapsed = tv_interval ( $time0 ) * 1000; # print the packet's info print "\a" if $Option{'a'}; print $Option{'s'} , " bytes from $IpAddress: "; print $Option{'p'} , "_seq=" , $Statistics{'i'} , ", time="; printf "%.2f ms\n", $elapsed; # if we returned slowest, save $Statistics{'max'} = $elapsed unless $elapsed < $Statistics{'max'}; # if we returned fastest, save $Statistics{'min'} = $elapsed if ( ! $Statistics{'min'} # especially if this is the first or $elapsed < $Statistics{'min'} ); # tally times $Statistics{'sum'} += $elapsed; } else { $Statistics{'loss'}++; # if we don't return, tally that # and print a message for comfort print "\a" if $Option{'A'}; print "From " , $LocalHost , ": destination host unreachable\n +" unless $Option{'Q'}; } $Statistics{'i'}++; sleep $Option{'i'} / 1000; # sleep before going again } $Ping->close(); # if we're done, close the pin +g } sub QuickPing { # is remote up or down only print $HostName , " is alive.\n" if $Ping->ping( $IpAddress ) or die $HostName , " is unreachable\n"; $Ping->close(); # if we're done, close the pin +g exit 1; } sub PingStatistics { # Solaris needed this to trap +SIGINT $SIG{INT} = \&PingStatistics unless $^O =~ /MSWin/; # math on %Statistics for disp +lay stats my $received = $Statistics{'i'} - $Statistics{'loss'}; my $stat_loss = ( $Statistics{'loss'} / $Statistics{'i'} * 1 +00 ); # print the top stat line print "\n--- " , $HostName , " " , uc $0 , " Statistics ---\n"; print $Statistics{'i'} , " packets transmitted, " , $received; print " packets received, " , $stat_loss , "\% packet loss\n"; exit if $stat_loss == "100"; # if no packets made it forget + the rest $Statistics{'avg'} = $Statistics{'sum'} / $Statistics{'i'}; # print the bottom stat line print "round-trip (ms): min/avg/max = "; printf "%.2f/%.2f/%.2f\n", $Statistics{'min'}, $Statistics{'avg'}, $Statistics{'max'}; die "Exited" # Solaris needs this too or wi +ll unless $^O =~ /MSWin/; exit; } # ping without stopping sub ResolveName { require Socket; # require versus use in case ' +-n' my ( $remote, $local ) = @_; # gather my ( $name, $address, $packed ); # get our local IP $local = Socket::inet_ntoa ( Socket::inet_aton ( $loca +l ) ); # passed a hostname? if ( $remote =~ /[A-Za-z]/o ) { $name = $remote; # get the remote IP, packed $packed = Socket::inet_aton ( $name ) # can't with w/o IP, so die or die "unknown host $name\n"; # unpack the IP into dotted qu +ads $address = Socket::inet_ntoa ( $packed ) # ditto or die "unknown host $name\n"; } # Dotted quads (most IP addres +ses) # fails on IPs like 127.1 and +2130706433 elsif ( $remote =~ # sanity check the $remote IP +address m{ # this is so cool, I'm still disec +ting ^ ( \d | [01]?\d\d | 2[0-4]\d | 25[0-5] ) \. ( \d | [01]?\d\d | 2[0-4]\d | 25[0-5] ) \. ( \d | [01]?\d\d | 2[0-4]\d | 25[0-5] ) \. ( \d | [01]?\d\d | 2[0-4]\d | 25[0-5] ) $ # from the Perl Cookbook, Reci +pe 6.23, }xo # pages 218-9, as fixed in the + 01/00 ) { # reprint $address = $remote; # get the remote IP, packed $packed = Socket::inet_aton ( $address ); # unpack the hostname $name = gethostbyaddr ( $packed, Socket::AF_INET() ) or $name = $address; # or else work with the IP address + only } # no sense in dying here else { # die if $remote isn't a valid + IP die "$remote: invalid hostname or address\n"; } return $name, $address, $local; # return } exit 1; __END__ =pod =head1 BUGS B<ping> suffers from no known bugs at this time. But see the ENVIRONM +ENT section for more detail. Some environments (like Win32) cannot trap SIGINT (CTRL-C) to display the summary lines on a break. Believed to work on Windows NT, Windows 2K, Solaris, Linux, and NetBSD +. =head1 STANDARDS I might be RFC compliant. I'm still reading the related RFCs for icmp. ~yawn~ =head1 REVISION HISTORY ping Revision 1.0 2000/06/29 10:34:03 idnopheq Initial revision =head1 AUTHOR The Perl implementation of B<ping> was written by Dexter Coffin, I<idnopheq@home.com>. =head1 COPYRIGHT and LICENSE This program is copyright by Dexter Coffin 2000. This program is free and open software. You may use, copy, modify, dis +tribute, and sell this program (and any modified variants) in any way you wish, provided you do not restrict others from doing the same. =head1 SEE ALSO =head1 NEXT TOPIC =for html <a href="os.html">ps</a><p> =cut

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