You need to understand that [...] in a regex is a character class, which matches just a single character. If you write [1-31], it can match the digits 1, 2 or 3, but only one of them. See perlretut for details.
The best thing to do is to first validate the syntax, with something like /\d\d?-\d\d?\d\d?/, and then check the ranges in perl code later.
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