printf ("%lX ", $buffer);
You probably want ord:
printf ("0x%lX ", ord $buffer);
because what you have in $buffer is a single byte string, not a number.
A more direct way might be to use unpack "H*", ...
$ perl -E'say unpack "H*", "foobar"'
or maybe unpack "(H2)*", ..., as in
$ perl -E'say "0x$_" for unpack "(H2)*", "foobar"'
in which case your buffer could consist of more than one byte.
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