/dev/random and /dev/urandom are used to supply entropy (randomness) to the system. They both come from the same pool of randomness in the kernel. One blocks until enough randomness is obtained to provide a number. The other tries to make due with however much randomness the kernel has (and doesn't block).
Haveged (and other programs) are means to supply the kernel with randomness. By default, haveged manages a 1M buffer of randomness. Haveged does not appear to keep open a file for this buffer of randomness, so perhaps it doesn't write the buffer to disk on shutdown.
But in any event, it seems to build the pool of randomness in the kernel faster than most other things I've tried.
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