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If you have a question on how to do something in Perl, or you need a Perl solution to an actual real-life problem, or you're unsure why something you've tried just isn't working... then this section is the place to ask. Post a new question!

However, you might consider asking in the chatterbox first (if you're a registered user). The response time tends to be quicker, and if it turns out that the problem/solutions are too much for the cb to handle, the kind monks will be sure to direct you here.

User Questions
Find number of items in a field multi-demensional array
3 direct replies — Read more / Contribute
by msnyder424
on Apr 26, 2018 at 14:29

    Hi Monks,

    I know that $#A returns the last index of an array @A. And scalar @A returns the number of items in an array @A. But if I have a multi-dimensional array of fields that looks something like this:

    @A = ([0,1],[0,...,0],[1,...,1])

    scalar @A returns the number of items in the first field: 2. OK. $#A returns the last index in the first field: 1. Also OK.

    But how do I find out how many zeros are in the second field? Or ones in the third field? I don't really care if its the index of the last item or the actual number of items. Like any good programmer I tried Googling the heck out of this but have come up empty handed.

XML::LibXML::Reader get size
No replies — Read more | Post response
by Anonymous Monk
on Apr 26, 2018 at 14:19

    I m learning to parse XML data using XML::LibXML::Reader. Is there a way to get the total number of nodes contained in the entire XML file of a particular element? My goal is to prompt the user of the advancement of the parsing process. To do this I need to know how many values will be in my while loop.

    my $entry_pattern = 'XML::LibXML::Pattern'->new('/martif/text/body +/Entry'); while ($reader->nextPatternMatch($entry_pattern)) { ...
orphaned users
1 direct reply — Read more / Contribute
by wap
on Apr 26, 2018 at 10:37

    The object of this project is to develop a Perl script ( for looking for orphaned homes (home directories without users, or the inverse).
    This script should generate a formatted listing of
    any user without a home directory...
    ...or any home directory (a directory in /home) that is not attached to a user.
    Remember that the identifying element is the UID, not the username.

    i keep getting this error :

    Array found where operator expected at ./ line 20, near "} " (Missing operator before ?) Not enough arguments for grep at ./ line 20, near "grep |" syntax error at ./ line 20, near "$eval{" Execution of ./ aborted due to compilation errors.

    #! /usr/bin/perl uid1; uid2; while(($uid) = getpwent()) { push(@uid1, $uid); } print " passwd users: @uid1\n"; opendir(DIR,'/home') or die "error opening home dir"; #foreach my $none(readdir(DIR)){ if($none = n(/^\./)) { next #; #} push(@uid2, $none); print "home Directory Elements :@uid2\n"; closedir(DIR); } @eval { map {lc} @uid1} = (); @uniqueElements = grep |e $eval{lc $_} @uid2; print "not in either locations:@uniqueElements\n"; exit;
Modifying pos() from within (?{...})
3 direct replies — Read more / Contribute
by mxb
on Apr 26, 2018 at 07:20

    Hi Monks

    I'm onto move advanced regular expressions now and I'm playing with (?{...})

    As a learning exercise I'm attempting to parse PNG files with a regex. Again, emphasis on the learning exercise :)

    After an 8 byte header, PNG files contains a sequential list of chunks. Each chunk consists of a 32-bit big endian length field, 32-bit ASCII tag, n bytes of data, where n is the value set in the length field, and a 32-bit big endian CRC. The full specification, should you require it can be found here on

    I have created the following test code, which loads a PNG from __DATA__, skips the header and attempts to extract chunks with my regex.

    I am successfully unpacking the length field within the (?{...})construct and extract the data to a scalar. I am also attempting to move the position with the regex by assigning to pos(). While the assignment seems to work, as in there are no errors, it seems to have no affect. I am extracting the first four bytes of the data with the CRC value.

    Is it not possible to move the position within the regex within a (?{...}) block? I originally thought to extract the data with a (?<data>.{$len}) construct, where $len is set within the (?{...}) but this also didn't work. I assume this is because the value of $len is set during regex compilation? (which would be undef)

    I've also attempted to make a version which uses the (??{...}) construct, but this is very new to me. This seems simpler as you can unpack the length field and return a string which matches that many bytes, but it has an odd issue with matching the last chunk. Not too sure if I should include it within this node, but advice for why this doesn't work is also much appreciated.

    Many thanks

    (?{...}) version:

    #!/usr/bin/env perl use strict; use warnings; use 5.016; # Parsing vars my ($data); # Rebuild PNG image local $/; my $input = <DATA>; chomp $input; $input = pack "H*", $input; # Skip PNG Header $input = substr( $input, 8 ); while ($input =~ /# four byte length (?<len>....) # four byte tag (?<tag>....) # variable length data (?{ # unpack length my $len = unpack "N", $+{len}; # extract data $data = substr($_, pos(), $len); # update position pos() += $len}) # four byte crc (?<crc>....)/mgx) { say "Chunk len:", unpack "N", $+{len}; say "Chunk tag:", $+{tag}; say "Chunk data:", unpack "H*", $data; say "Chunk data len:", length $data; say "Chunk CRC: ", unpack "H*", $+{crc}; say "---"; } __END__ __DATA__ 89504e470d0a1a0a0000000d4948445200000010000000100803000000282d0f530000 +015c504c544547704c4f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7 +eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb5 +4f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7 +eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb34f7eb54f7eb5 +4f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb44f7 +eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb5 +4f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7 +eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb5 +4f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb34f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7 +eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb4 +4f7eb54f7eb54f7eb5a29b27fc0000007374524e5300242d75280b02fa8bae61fdf7f +bf5e266d109dd6462faf9fc6b0dde6571b3d9b0031f01e0cd83d64505928fc51eb405 +582a426d052f12e5840e63ecea046ab248d0f6327c3e0c4ff311b67960822ef295f8a +093af76e3683c3d7213eb02192cbb8106f190db5ad42cc19ba7504c36150ec28de169 +2647000000cb4944415418d3636040005b264b0614e0e7e50c24f595617ccf201e5f3 +706062e16289f8d39b0d83fc09521980bc237737011e6f370b260080fb11390111195 +55b0b6f7f671b7d2658808e3e665176397282e2e766404298de229860173539040226 +f71b18db43848401eac222db9983d9445925385bb584e0a2490915a1c13c9c0c0aac1 +5fccc10612c8e1e74b8806d28682eacc60fb8b84d3536281b4910ea731588043303b3 +30e481ba8ea690b8104720b05b2e2813413879a96124840282fbf2009c4d034615504 +520015a424be37c5c7be0000000049454e44ae426082

    (??{...}) version:

    #!/usr/bin/env perl use strict; use warnings; use 5.016; our $VERSION = 0.1; # Rebuild PNG image local $/; my $input = <DATA>; chomp $input; $input = pack "H*", $input; # Skip PNG Header $input = substr( $input, 8 ); while ( my ( $len, $tag, $data, $crc ) = $input =~ / # four byte length (....) # four byte tag (....) # variable length data (??{ # unpack length my $len = unpack "N", $1; print STDERR "$2 $len\n"; return "(.){$len}"}) # four byte crc (....)/gx ) { say "Chunk len:", unpack "N", $len; say "Chunk tag:", $tag; say "Chunk data:", unpack "H*", $data; say "Chunk data len:", length $data; say "Chunk CRC: ", unpack "H*", $crc; } __DATA__ 89504e470d0a1a0a0000000d4948445200000010000000100803000000282d0f530000 +015c504c544547704c4f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7 +eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb5 +4f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7 +eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb34f7eb54f7eb5 +4f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb44f7 +eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb5 +4f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7 +eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb5 +4f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb34f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7 +eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb44f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb54f7eb4 +4f7eb54f7eb54f7eb5a29b27fc0000007374524e5300242d75280b02fa8bae61fdf7f +bf5e266d109dd6462faf9fc6b0dde6571b3d9b0031f01e0cd83d64505928fc51eb405 +582a426d052f12e5840e63ecea046ab248d0f6327c3e0c4ff311b67960822ef295f8a +093af76e3683c3d7213eb02192cbb8106f190db5ad42cc19ba7504c36150ec28de169 +2647000000cb4944415418d3636040005b264b0614e0e7e50c24f595617ccf201e5f3 +706062e16289f8d39b0d83fc09521980bc237737011e6f370b260080fb11390111195 +55b0b6f7f671b7d2658808e3e665176397282e2e766404298de229860173539040226 +f71b18db43848401eac222db9983d9445925385bb584e0a2490915a1c13c9c0c0aac1 +5fccc10612c8e1e74b8806d28682eacc60fb8b84d3536281b4910ea731588043303b3 +30e481ba8ea690b8104720b05b2e2813413879a96124840282fbf2009c4d034615504 +520015a424be37c5c7be0000000049454e44ae426082


    IHDR 13 PLTE 348 tRNS 115 IDAT 203 DAT 52041 Quantifier in {,} bigger than 32766 in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/ +(.){ <-- HERE 52041}/ at line 17, <DATA> chunk 1.

    To me, this looks like the IDAT chunk match is failing so it's backtracking and seeking forwards

Greedy flip flop operator?
6 direct replies — Read more / Contribute
by chengchl
on Apr 26, 2018 at 02:46

    Hi Perl Monks,

    I have a question about flip flop operator ( /pattern/ .. /pattern/ ) and hope for your instructions/thoughts.

    Suppose I have a text file like this :

    start text

    + 123

    + 456

    + 789

    some other text not starting with +

    I would like to extract from "start text" to the one line before "some other text not starting with +". That is to say, in this example, to extract the first four lines.

    I wrote a script like this -

    #!/usr/bin/perl use strict; use warnings; my $file = "file_name_to_the_txt"; open(my $fh,'<',$file) or die "Warnings: $!\n"; while (<$fh>) { print if (/^start/ .. /^\+/); } close ($fh);

    but it only generates the first two lines. Is there a way to have a greedy flip flop operator? thanks in advance.

Disabling runtime warnings in dynamic scope?
3 direct replies — Read more / Contribute
by LanX
on Apr 25, 2018 at 18:26
    On request of a colleague I was playing around with an own implementation of switch as replacement for given/when

    Surprisingly, I can use next within a sub to be able to fall thru to the next case, which leads to a nice syntax.

    use strict; use warnings; use diagnostics; sub switch { no warnings 'exiting'; while (@_) { my ($case, $action) = splice @_,0,2; return $action->($case) if $_ ~~ $case; } } #no warnings 'exiting'; switch [1,2,3] => sub { print "bla" ; next}, 3 => sub { print "bla2" } for (3);

    But I'm getting

    Exiting subroutine via next at d:/Users/RolfLangsdorf/pm/ lin +e 18 (#1) (W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, +such as a goto, or a loop control statement.

    Obviously I can't dynamically disable the warning, because it's lexically scoped.

    Uncommenting the #no warnings 'exiting' works, but would be acting for a much wider scope.


    Is it possible to disable a certain warning in the dynamic scope?

    Overwriting the warn handler does the trick ...

    local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub { warn "$_[0]" unless $_[0] =~ /^Exiting subroutine via next/ } ;

    ... , but maybe there is a cleaner solution?

    NB: this is experimental code and not meant for production! :)

    Cheers Rolf
    (addicted to the Perl Programming Language and ☆☆☆☆ :)
    Wikisyntax for the Monastery

XS/C, threads, and calling call_sv() with a code ref
2 direct replies — Read more / Contribute
by stevieb
on Apr 25, 2018 at 15:16

    Hello fellow Monks,

    I am experiencing an issue with some C/XS I'm trying to get working. I will explain what I'm trying to do, how I perceive what the code is actually doing and a bit about what's happening. I'll then show the Inline::C code, the output, some gdb debugging output. Unfortunately, unless you have a Raspberry Pi, there's no way you can repro this successfully.

    What I'm trying to do:

    I have an interrupt routine for a GPIO pin on the Pi. This interrupt routine (ISR) is spun off into a separate C++ thread, and to facilitate the ability for the user to use a Perl subroutine as the callback/interrupt handler, I'm trying to pass in a code reference, and have the C/XS execute that sent-in-as-a-param code ref.

    What is the code doing?:

    I set up a function in main called cref_handler(). I then initialize the RPi, configure the appropriate GPIO pin, then set the interrupt on that pin, passing in a reference to the mentioned cref_handler() routine. The interrupt handler (the code the coderef points to) is to run any time the specified pin goes LOW (ie. 0 volts). Both the interrupt setup and the actual interrupt handler that executes the code in the coderef is written in C and passed along to an external library that dumps the ISR into its own thread.

    What the hell is happening?:

    The callback code simply prints to STDOUT. Once the script is run, I may get a few printouts when shorting (ie. turning LOW the pin), sometimes I don't. In all cases, it eventually leads to a SEGFAULT. Sometimes after a microsecond, sometimes after a second or two.

    I'm not an expert C coder by any stretch, so I believe what may be happening is that the threaded interrupt code isn't handling the global C variables I've set up, or perhaps it's the way I'm using some of Perl's internals wrong (eg: PerlInterpreter, PERL_SET_CONTEXT etc), or the way the interruptHandlerCref() XS code is laid out.


    I'd greatly appreciate it if those experienced in these XS/C matters could have a look and see what I'm doing wrong here, if its possible without having to actually run the code (I truly apologize for that inability). I'm thinking it's my inexperience with C, or misunderstanding how the whole background threads thing is handled here.


    use warnings; use strict; use RPi::Const qw(:all); use Inline ('C' => 'DATA' => libs => '-lwiringPi -lrt -lwiringPiDev -l +pthread'); my $continue = 1; $SIG{INT} = sub { $continue = 0; }; sub cref_handler { print "cref handler\n"; } my $cref = \&cref_handler; init(); pin_mode(3, INPUT); setInterruptCref(3, EDGE_FALLING, $cref); my $running; while ($continue){ print "running\n" if ! $running; $running = 1; } __DATA__ __C__ #include <wiringPi.h> #include <stdio.h> void init (){ wiringPiSetupGpio(); } PerlInterpreter* mine; SV* perl_callback_cref; void interruptHandlerCref(){ PERL_SET_CONTEXT(mine); dSP; ENTER; SAVETMPS; PUSHMARK(SP); PUTBACK; call_sv(perl_callback_cref, G_DISCARD|G_NOARGS); FREETMPS; LEAVE; } int setInterruptCref(int pin, int edge, SV* callback){ mine = Perl_get_context(); perl_callback_cref = callback; int interrupt = wiringPiISR(pin, edge, &interruptHandlerCref); return interrupt; } void pin_mode (int pin, int mode){ pinMode(pin, mode); }


    running cref handler cref handler cref handler running dler running dler Segmentation fault

    I am perplexed as to how the running line is printed numerous times, given that it should only print once, at the onset after everything else is done. This is what leads me to believe something is going very wacky with the threading somehow...

    Debug output (snipped for brevity):

    $ gdb perl GNU gdb (Raspbian 7.12-6) (gdb) r [New Thread 0x76af7470 (LWP 26138)] running cref handler Thread 1 "perl" received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault. 0x000c09ec in Perl_pp_and () (gdb) bt #0 0x000c09ec in Perl_pp_and () #1 0x000c0434 in Perl_runops_standard () #2 0x000500a4 in perl_run () #3 0x0002ab50 in main ()

    The backtraces are consistently different, fwiw, but mostly they are relatively similar. I can repro several times if necessary if it'll help.



Trying to send a nicely formatted email -> GMail
2 direct replies — Read more / Contribute
by chexmix
on Apr 25, 2018 at 11:21
    Hi Monks,

    I'm working on a project where I'm going to need to send a decently-formatted table of things via email -- GMail, unfortunately, which I've found needs special lines for encoding the thing to "quoted-printable" to not destroy the nice formatting I've set up in the script.

    The REAL script will get its data from a database, but I've put the following dummy script together to play with the modules I assume are necessary to get the email sent and look nice.

    ... and it's not working. I get blank emails with subject lines like "ARRAY(0x2730298)". I have futzed and futzed with the script-let below ... maybe a monk smarter than me (most of you) can tell me what I'm doing wrong.

    #!/usr/bin/env perl use IO::All; use Email::MIME; use Email::Sender::Simple qw(sendmail); unlink 'mailtext.txt'; ################################################## # just an experiment with perlform to try and make # a nice output for the dashboard # ################################################ # set some vars so we can have stuff to print # what are we likely gonna wanna print? my $tweet_id = 0; my $tweet_cat = ''; # this is tweet category my $tweet_obj = ''; # this is tweet object: obsid? bibcode? my $tweet_obj_2 = ''; # secondary id - for instance, seq_nbr my $tweet_date = ''; my $tweet_weight = 0; open (MAILTEXT, '>>', 'mailtext.txt'); print(MAILTEXT "Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\Content-Transf +er-Encoding: quoted-printable\n"); format TWIT = @<<<<<< @<<<<< @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< @<< +<<<<<<<< ^<<<<<<<<< $tweet_id, $tweet_cat, $tweet_obj, $tweet_obj_2, $tweet_date, $tweet_w +eight ---------------------------------------------------------------------- +------------------------ . format TWIT_TOP = ====================================================================== +======================== twit_id twit_cat twit_obj twit_obj_2 dat +e_active twit_weight ====================================================================== +======================== . select(MAILTEXT); $~ = TWIT; $^ = TWIT_TOP; my @id = (50, 51, 52, 53, 54); my @cat = ("BIB", "BIB", "DAT", "PLE", "UNP"); my @obj = ("2014HEAD...1411609Z", "2016SPIE.9905E..45G","20201", "2 +018ApJ...855..100S", "19288"); my @obj_2 = (254, 29, 'X-ray Clusters', 5.1, 502938); my @date = ("02/02/18","03/23/18","03/22/18","03/13/18","03/05/18"); my @weight = (2, 5, 4, 3, 1); my $i = 0; foreach (@id) { $tweet_id = $_; $tweet_cat = $cat[$i]; $tweet_obj = $obj[$i]; $tweet_obj_2 = $obj_2[$i]; $tweet_date = $date[$i]; $tweet_weight = $weight[$i++]; write; } my @parts = ( Email::MIME->create( attributes => { filename => "mailtext.txt", content_type => "text/plain", encoding => "quoted-printable", name => "CDA Twitter Dashboard", }, body => io( "mailtext.txt")->utf8->all, ), ); my $email = Email::MIME->create( header_str => [ From => [ "cdatwitter\" ], To => [ "gbecker\" ], Subject => [ "Yes this is for Twitter" ], ], parts => [ @parts ], ); sendmail($email);

    I'm sure the script sucks in many ways, but it's the emailing I'm concerned about here. Any nudges would be most appreciated.



is Plack really necessary?
2 direct replies — Read more / Contribute
by Anonymous Monk
on Apr 25, 2018 at 10:10
    In a ngnix ,Starman,dancer set-up,where does Plack fit in? is it necessary for nginx to Starman communication? can you have a straight ngnix to dancer connection without Plack or Starman?
(Solved) Search::Elasticsearch date range
2 direct replies — Read more / Contribute
by bfdi533
on Apr 24, 2018 at 18:04

    I have a query I need to run against ElasticSearch and am using Search::Elasticsearch module. The issue is getting the data range correctly in the query on the PERL side as I can make this work from curl without any issues. After much tinkering with format, the following no longer throws errors when executing the code but the date range does not change the number of results returned no matter what I set the date to. This leads me to believe that there is something wrong with the code.

    For what it is worth, I have noticed that if I change the 'gte' to a 'lte' then I get a count of -1 showing no results are being returned. So, something is "working" if I do that ...

    Any hints, changes or suggestions would be much appreciated!

    #!/usr/bin/env perl # global settings use warnings; use strict; $|++; # libraries use Data::Dumper; use Search::Elasticsearch; use Try::Tiny; # global variables my $elk_host1 = ''; my $elk_host2 = ''; my $elk_host3 = ''; my $elk_host4 = ''; my $elk_user = 'user'; my $elk_pass = 'pass'; my $dt = `date +%F_%T`; chomp $dt; my $latest_dt; print "Starting run at: ".`date`; my $e = Search::Elasticsearch->new( nodes => [ "http://$elk_user:$elk_pass\@$elk_host1" , "http://$elk_user:$elk_pass\@$elk_host2" , "http://$elk_user:$elk_pass\@$elk_host3" , "http://$elk_user:$elk_pass\@$elk_host4" , ] , max_requests => 10000, ); my $results = $e->search ( size => 10000, index => 'api-*', body => { query => { bool => { must => { term => { '_type' => "alarm", }, }, filter => { range => { '@timestamp' => { gte => "2018-04-23 00:00:00", format => "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss" } } } } } } ); print "Count: ".$#{ $results->{hits}->{hits} }."\n";

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