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Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl

by radiantmatrix (Parson)
on Jan 26, 2005 at 15:33 UTC ( #425234=perlquestion: print w/ replies, xml ) Need Help??
radiantmatrix has asked for the wisdom of the Perl Monks concerning the following question:

I've been working with Perl for a while now, though I still consider myself a novice. I've worked my way through the Camel Book, and the Perl Cookbook. I've been using that level of skill for a while, and I think I've done pretty well -- for a novice. Now, however, I find that I'm longing for the Deeper Secrets of Perl -- the sort of advanced technique that can bring me from "I love Perl, and use it frequently" to "I live, breathe, eat, and dream in Perl".

As first steps, I've been reading the Monastic Meditations, I've ordered Advanced Perl Programming and Mastering Algorithms in Perl. Where do I go from here? What should I focus on learning? Are there general skills and knowledge that will help me progress with Perl? Are there other good books, web resources, etc. I should be reading?

Also helpful would be stories of how other Monks broke through the barrier from "I know Perl" to being an accomplished Perl developer.

Thanks, as always, for aiding my enlightenment!

radiantmatrix
require General::Disclaimer;
s//2fde04abe76c036c9074586c1/; while(m/(.)/g){print substr(' ,JPacehklnorstu',hex($1),1)}

Comment on Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by dragonchild (Archbishop) on Jan 26, 2005 at 15:45 UTC
    I play golf. I also wrote a few CPAN modules. Some people write obfu's.

    Beyond that, I don't think there's much more without leaving the realm of Perl and entering the realm of computer science. Most of the Perl gurus are really programming gurus that happen to use Perl when you see them. They would be equally guru-ish in pretty much any language out there.

    Being right, does not endow the right to be rude; politeness costs nothing.
    Being unknowing, is not the same as being stupid.
    Expressing a contrary opinion, whether to the individual or the group, is more often a sign of deeper thought than of cantankerous belligerence.
    Do not mistake your goals as the only goals; your opinion as the only opinion; your confidence as correctness. Saying you know better is not the same as explaining you know better.

      I have no formal CS training, and that is part of my problem, I know. I am definately open to suggestions about learning general CS skills as well, as they obviously apply to making me a better Perl developer.

      radiantmatrix
      require General::Disclaimer;
      s//2fde04abe76c036c9074586c1/; while(m/(.)/g){print substr(' ,JPacehklnorstu',hex($1),1)}

        A few suggestions, all boiling down to reading:
        1. Read any basic CS 101 textbook. You can pick them up real cheap at college bookstores.
        2. Read all of tilly's meditations. Then read tye's, brian_d_foy's, and any other major Perl name. You can SuperSearch limiting on a person's name, just Meditations, then (at the bottom) exclude replies.
        3. Read all the Apocalypses, Synopses, and Exegeses for Perl6. Not for the Perl6 stuff, but because Perl6 is going to be an extremely syncretic language. As you hit a concept you don't fully understand, Google it.

        Remember this - CS is the science of algorithms, especially algorithms as implemented using a binary-logic computational machine. Everything else is built upon that.

        Being right, does not endow the right to be rude; politeness costs nothing.
        Being unknowing, is not the same as being stupid.
        Expressing a contrary opinion, whether to the individual or the group, is more often a sign of deeper thought than of cantankerous belligerence.
        Do not mistake your goals as the only goals; your opinion as the only opinion; your confidence as correctness. Saying you know better is not the same as explaining you know better.

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by Mutant (Priest) on Jan 26, 2005 at 16:04 UTC

    The best way to learn anything is to have a reason to learn it. If you don't work as a programmer, then you may want to pursue some projects of your own (and that may mean contributing to existing Open Source projects, or starting your own).

    If you do work as a programmer (and it doesn't have to be in Perl), then make sure you're in an environment where you're going to be upskilled - not necessarily because your work sends you on 2 day training courses, but because the job is challenging, and there are other people to learn from.

    In general, working on code with other people (especially if the code is complex enough, and the other people know more than you) is the best way to increase your skills. There's only so much you can learn from a book. I consider books good for foundation, but until you really have to use them for something, you won't understand the concepts deeply.

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by artist (Parson) on Jan 26, 2005 at 16:24 UTC
    I've ordered Advanced Perl Programming and Mastering Algorithms in Perl.
    These two, should fill you for a while and even give you the direction for next learning. While you are there, also read "Object Oriented Perl", "Perl for Sys admin" and "Network programming with Perl", depend upon the area that you are interested in.
    A repository of your skill set can also be a good starting point. You might be interested at some point, is how you have been managing what you have learned. Where do you put it to use etc.

      I would also recommend you "Mastering Regular Expressions", not only Perl, but with a long chapter on it.

      I think regexp are a very important part of Perl itself, and mastering them can help you to avoid some headaches.

        That book is recommended reading for many, many reasons. I urge everyone who considers themselves a serious programmer, Perl or otherwise, to read it.

        Makeshifts last the longest.

        MRE has been on my bookshelf since I bought the Camel book. I haven't worked all the way through yet, but I agree it is indispensible.

        radiantmatrix
        require General::Disclaimer;
        s//2fde04abe76c036c9074586c1/; while(m/(.)/g){print substr(' ,JPacehklnorstu',hex($1),1)}

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by bwelch (Curate) on Jan 26, 2005 at 16:36 UTC
    A few thoughts...

    Reading and studying only helps to a point. I find fixing, adapting, and building things is a better way for me to expand skills. This improves both developer skills and Perl skills.

    Developer skills involve computer science, work habits, planning techniques, and more. Much of this is learned more easily from others than from books.

    Perl skills tend to involve specific tasks like file processing, hash manipulation, and data base interation. I find that even when one thinks they know a language well, there tends to always be something else to learn.

      While I would agree with you that learning from others would be best (that's why I hang out at the Monestary to begin with), I work in sort of a Perl Desert. All about me use C# and VB. I also learn *very* well from books, when properly supplemented.

      I learned Perl to begin with by reading Programming Perl (the Learning book was paged through and seemed good, but not presented in a way that works with how I learn) and using what I learned to stagger my way through a few downloaded Perl scripts.1.

      I expect that the way to increase my Perl skill is to read as much theory as possible, then study others' scripts that use that theory, then write my own as well.

      1. From Matt's, originally. I learned more about Perl by identifying the problems with those scripts... then I went to CPAN and a few other Perl-code haunts and worked my way through increasingly complex scripts until I felt I had a working knowledge of them.

      radiantmatrix
      require General::Disclaimer;
      s//2fde04abe76c036c9074586c1/; while(m/(.)/g){print substr(' ,JPacehklnorstu',hex($1),1)}

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by nite_man (Deacon) on Jan 26, 2005 at 16:53 UTC

    I've started to study the book "Effective Perl Programming: Writing Better Programs With Perl" and I've found it very useful and interesting for me. In my mind, that book can help Perl developers produce hight quality code.

    Also, to improve your Perl knowledge you can study the best exemplars of Perl applications. Pesonally I was surprised when I customized RT2 (www.bestpractical.com) because it's one of the best examples of OO Perl development. An analysis of code of professionals is good way to improve yourself professional level.

    Updated: It's very important to develop something useful for other people (CPAN modules, scripts etc) and share it with other developers. So, you will able to get practical skills and improve your Perl knowledge based on criticism and suggestions.

    ---
    Michael Stepanov aka nite_man

    It's only my opinion and it doesn't have pretensions of absoluteness!

      I've got to second this one (in addition to ++). Effective Perl Programming is just packed with useful tips for perl fluency. If you want to write perl without a terrible foreign-computer-language accent, get this book and read it cover to cover. Then re-read it again after about six months of programming in Perl and you'll pick up even more.

      -xdg

      Code written by xdg and posted on PerlMonks is public domain. It is provided as is with no warranties, express or implied, of any kind. Posted code may not have been tested. Use of posted code is at your own risk.

        Effective Perl Programming is just packed with useful tips for perl fluency

        Maybe. I like that book because I'm tired of read every time the same liric introduction in Perl. "Effective Perl Programming" is oriented on the experience Perl developers and accentuates on Perl specific features.

        Sure, there are many good Perl books which were named in that post. Personally, I pick out following Perl books:

        • Effective Perl Programming by Joseph N. Hall, Randal Schwartz;
        • Mastering Algorithms in Perl by John Macdonald, Jon Orwant, Jarkko Hietaniemi;
        • Object Oriented Perl by Damian Conway;
        • Learning Perl Objects, References & Modules by Randal L. Schwartz, Tom Phoenix;
        • Perl Medic : Transforming Legacy Code by Peter J. Scott;
        • Network Programming with Perl by Lincoln D. Stein.

        get this book and read it cover to cover. Then re-read it again after about six months of programming in Perl and you'll pick up even more.

        That's the true! Generally speaking it's a good practice to re-read masterpieces.

        ---
        Michael Stepanov aka nite_man

        It's only my opinion and it doesn't have pretensions of absoluteness!

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by davido (Archbishop) on Jan 26, 2005 at 17:59 UTC

    I've got a ways to go, but here are some of the things that have gotten me to where I am:

    • Read Llama (Learning Perl), Camel (Programming Perl), Ram (Perl Cookbook), Panther (Advanced Perl Programming), Alpaca (Perl References and Objects), Mouse-II (CGI Programming with Perl), Cheetah (Programming the Perl DBI), Owls (Mastering Regular Expressions), and Wolf (Mastering Algorithms with Perl). There were a few others, but these were the most influential.
    • Read the Perl POD, cover to cover, so to speak. Ok, I didn't read the POD on operating systems that don't interest me, and I didn't really understand perlipc, or even perlguts the first time through (even now some of it goes over my head), but I made it a point to read everything else :). That was really helpful. First, I learned a lot of what I read, and second, I learned how to navigate the POD so that when I inevitably forget something that I've read, I'll know how to find it again.
    • I practiced with test scripts and obfus. Obfus were a fun way to force myself to play with some of the more obscure syntaxes and tricks buried in the language. And test scripts allowed me to set up little scenarios that I could think through and solve.
    • Read questions here at the Monastery, solve them on my own (especially if I don't know the answer to begin with), and if others haven't already posted better answers, post my own reply.
    • As others mention various modules, go to CPAN, get the module, read it's POD, and play with the module until I understand it. This familiarized myself with installing modules, understanding their POD, understanding how to use their OO interface (before understanding OO concepts myself), and understanding how to "get things done" with Perl.

    I hope this gives you some ideas on where you might expand your learning.


    Dave

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by sth (Priest) on Jan 26, 2005 at 19:22 UTC

    Advance Perl Programming has some good chapters on perl internals and XS programming. If you find you want to learn more, I would highly recommend buying Extending & Embedding Perl.

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by dimar (Curate) on Jan 26, 2005 at 20:25 UTC

    Since no one else has mentioned it yet, a (somewhat oblique, yet sure-fire) path to additional insight would be to learn to program in C (assuming you don't already know it). This will give you an apprecation of some of the 'behind the scenes' as well as insight as to *why* you like perl so much.

      I can poke my way around in C; enough to patch my copy of bash to use Haiku error messages, anyhow. ;-) I cut my teeth on C, Pascal, and later Java -- but I loved Perl from the moment I discovered how similar it is to a spoken language.

      Oh, and three words: "Automatic Garbage Collection". I always hated trying to remember to free my malloc(). Not that I wouldn't love to know more about C, as somehow writing something like an OS kernel in Perl seems like a poor idea...

      radiantmatrix
      require General::Disclaimer;
      s//2fde04abe76c036c9074586c1/; while(m/(.)/g){print substr(' ,JPacehklnorstu',hex($1),1)}

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by petdance (Parson) on Jan 26, 2005 at 20:58 UTC
    Damian's "Object Oriented Perl" is crucial.

    xoxo,
    Andy

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by geektron (Curate) on Jan 26, 2005 at 20:59 UTC
    Also helpful would be stories of how other Monks broke through the barrier from "I know Perl" to being an accomplished Perl developer.

    i'm still breaking through. i've been coding professionally for somewhere around 5 years, and i still find there are things i don't know, *should* know, etc. it all comes with the work and the exposure.

    for *some* random ( and OT ) reason, i finally started to understand what tie was really for .... while i was driving to get smokes, when i had been thinking about many things *other* than perl ...

    so sometimes, the 'enlightenment' just bonks you on the head.

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by tcf03 (Deacon) on Jan 26, 2005 at 21:35 UTC
    Im in the same boat as you, Im at the point where I need to get involved in a project. Finding the time is the issue. Over the past month or two my skill level has increased quite a bit just perusing the nodes at perlmonks.org and cleaning up old code that Ive written using what Ive learned here. Folks here have been extremely helpful.

    Ted
Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by macrobat (Beadle) on Jan 26, 2005 at 22:10 UTC
    This might smack more of reinforcing fundamentals than deepening knowledge, but one thing that seems to work for me is to go through some more extensive shell scripts and see if you can't convert them into Perl, aiming at a reduction in code length and (hopefully) an increase in clarity. This might teach you something new about the shells as well.

    Of course, this doesn't help you with broader design issues, and if you convert a poorly-thought-out script into perl, you get poorly-thought-out perl. Heck, even some well-thought out shell scripts might ignore perl-only idiomatic solutions, but you get the idea: use something that's been created as a proof-of-concept, and mirror that functionality in perl. Redesign if you deem it necessary.

    Any *N*X box likely has a wealth of examples to draw from; and books on shell scripting should have shorter examples to copy. I'm sure googling will find you even more.

    (This supplements the "write something to scratch your personal itch" line of advice I often hear; sometimes you don't even know what itches until you get further out into the forest.)

    Something worth thinking about.

      This was advice I got early on in my quest to learn Perl. I have a "toy" Debian box that I use to play with new ideas and such; I don't think there are any shell scripts left, save those that start before my /usr partition is mounted, and those that are so shell-cryptic I can't yet understand what they do. ;-)

      Sadly, I didn't find anything truly advanced there (maybe in the shell stuff I don't get yet, there are gems) from a Perl perspective. I did, however, learn a lot about perl -x

      radiantmatrix
      require General::Disclaimer;
      s//2fde04abe76c036c9074586c1/; while(m/(.)/g){print substr(' ,JPacehklnorstu',hex($1),1)}

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by fergal (Chaplain) on Jan 26, 2005 at 22:40 UTC
    It's not the deeper secrets of Perl so much as the deeper secrets of programming (while using Perl at the same time) but MJD's forthcoming book Higher Order Perl is probably going to kick ass. The preview chapters that I read have a lot of cool stuff. The idea is to steal a lot of the super cool secrets of Lisp programmers and present them in Perl.
      Hi,
      It could be deeper Perl, the best guys on this website know what the Perl Interpreter gets up to under the hood. Maybe they look at the Perl source code for this, maybe they just know C, I dont know. Try and refactor your code for speed, its a good way to learn the 'best ways'

      Updated Steve_p - changed to title back to "Re^2: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl"

        This is a real "pearl" of wisdom-- to understand Perl, the language, deeply, it is *indispensable* that you have at least a basic understanding of how perl, the C program, works. They are very intimately related. perlguts can be helpful for this, but you can learn a heck of a lot by using the output of some of the B modules, or by building a debugging perl and running -Dt on very simple programs. I would also recommend PerlGuts Illustrated by Gisle Aas. It is not complete but it is very helpful.

        Benjamin Holzman
        $ perl -MXML::Generator=:pretty -le 'print just(another(perl(hacker())))'
Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by Anonymous Monk on Jan 26, 2005 at 23:37 UTC
    You should try creating some machine learning programs in perl. These utilize a decision tree which is no more than a binary tree with yes and no branches. Figuring out and deciding on good criteria for the programs decisions will bring your view around to. "I use perl to do the things it was meant to do". Needless to say, binary trees are amazing once you get your head around them. My little tidbit is: "Don't rely on book knowledge, Get out and design some real applications" These will expand your knowledge and allow you to realize the truths for yourself. Blucheese
Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by blazar (Canon) on Jan 27, 2005 at 09:25 UTC
    Something that has not been mentioned yet, but that just at the same time is obvious is gradual learning by means of exchange of ideas with more experienced users, mostly during the course of trying to accomplish a well definite practical task.

    I, for one, made my very few first steps in perl with the aid of a borrowed Perl4-based (I guess) "Learning Perl". Then I began asking for advice on clpmisc and for sure I've learnt more about perl there than anywhere else.

    Of course everything is in the docs, but for obvious reasons it's far too easy to overlook potentially precious pieces of information, maybe because we just think that they're not fundamental for us at a certain point...

    For example stuff I've been surprised to discover at first and that has been "revealed" to me in the course of discussions includes (but is not limited to!):

    • the possibility of putting coderefs (or more generally perl code) in @INC,
    • the possibility of open()ing strings as files in memory,
    • the possibility of open()ing temporary anonymous files,
    • smart symbol table manipulations.
Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by cog (Parson) on Jan 27, 2005 at 10:15 UTC
    Better than writing obfuscation is to read it and try to understand it. That's how you learn a lot.

    On a side note, you can always take a look at the slides for Perl Black Magic (won't take you much time), even though you lose a lot from not hearing what the guy has to say.

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by r34d0nl1 (Pilgrim) on Jan 27, 2005 at 10:59 UTC
    Advanced Perl Programming is a great book and I guess it will give something to think about for a while.
    Anyway the Mastering Algorithms in Perl is more like a guide to use some common (and some that gave me migraine)
    algorithms but not really related to the Perl learning itself.
    In my opinion you could, by next, (after knowing a lot about Perl and its use with algorithms)
    try to apply it in your area of study or work, like networks, AI or admin.
    In my case, I'm trying to understand more deeply OO with Perl,Debuggind Perl and
    (as a developer working a lot with web these days) the template toolkit and mod_perl related topics.
    well... chose your flavor and good luck.
Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by adamk (Chaplain) on Jan 27, 2005 at 11:55 UTC
    Write a CPAN module.

    Write a CPAN module.

    Write a CPAN module.

    I'm saying this three time so that you will remember it.

    In all seriousness, finding a topic that interests you that has not yet been solved, and then dealing with all the issues of naming, API design, sane implementation, best standards coding, writing for maintenance, documentation, proper unit testing, packaging, PAUSE, maintenance and bug reports from users, cross-platform compatibility and all the other things that come from doing a CPAN module (or three) will help to push forward your ability a lot further than you could imagine.

    Nobody knows ALL the tricks of the perl syntax. At some point you are going to realise that you probably know "enough" of the core of writing perl code.

    Once you have that covered, it's the higher order things that you need to be looking at. The standards you will need to follow and the issues you need to deal with in order to build and publish CPAN modules (and do it PROPERLY) are going to help you in all your perl coding.

    Learning to write CPAN modules is learning to truly encapsulate properly. To solve certain problems and put them behind you and move onto more difficult problems.

    Not to mention that for just about every single well paid senior perl position I've seen advertised one of the first questions you are going to get asked is "What is your CPAN ID?".

    I simply cannot recommend it enough.
      Good gods, this is the absolute perfect response to the OP's question.

      $node->++ for 1 .. Inf;

      Programming isn't about the language you use, it's about what you do with it. In Excel::Template, I just removed the usage of a feature in ExtUtils::MakeMaker because it was the source of 50% of my bug reports. Portability is hell, but Perl makes you face it.

      Another is featuresets. PDF::Template has to depend on Unicode::String, but only if you're not Perl5.8+ - what's the best way to do that? It's not so easy ...

      Being right, does not endow the right to be rude; politeness costs nothing.
      Being unknowing, is not the same as being stupid.
      Expressing a contrary opinion, whether to the individual or the group, is more often a sign of deeper thought than of cantankerous belligerence.
      Do not mistake your goals as the only goals; your opinion as the only opinion; your confidence as correctness. Saying you know better is not the same as explaining you know better.

Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by brian_d_foy (Abbot) on Jan 27, 2005 at 17:44 UTC

    You have to find something that forces you to look at things you would never look at. People have suggested writing modules, but that just makes you use the stuff you already know. Other people have suggested books, but there aren't that many deep secrets in the books that you can't get almost anywhere else.

    Here's what I do, although not on purpose:

    • Teach Perl - until you have to explain how something works, you probably don't really understand it. You may be able to use it correctly, but the act of teaching makes you integrate it into a larger view of everything.
    • Answer perlfaqs - This is much like teaching Perl, although you don't get the pressure of a student waiting for an answer. you do get to research the topic though.
    • Write about Perl - Sit down and write down everything you know about a topic. That's probably only a small fraction of what there is to know. Start filling in the details.
    • Read perl5porters, etc - a lot of the deep secrets aren't in books. You'll have to wade through a lot of mailing lists, usenet posts, and other sources to get a few nuggets.
    • Read the source - look under the hood of Perl scripts and modules, and do it a lot. If you really want to know the black magic, figure out which authors have weird or fragile idioms and styles. You don't have to code like they do, but you'll have to figure out how they are doing their magic.
    • Write the source - if you get over your fear of reading the source, start writing the perl source. You'll have to figure out how everything connects to everything else.
    • Just stick around - keep doing what you are doing, but for a lot longer.
    --
    brian d foy <bdfoy@cpan.org>
Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by Anonymous Monk on Jan 27, 2005 at 23:13 UTC
    The best way to learn the deep secrets of Perl is to write a Perl interpreter. In fact, you might even consider doing so with Parrot as the bytecode processor.
Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by tcf03 (Deacon) on Jan 28, 2005 at 00:28 UTC
    Im curious, what kind of projects are out there for people to get involved in? Especially for people who are not perl wizards, but would like to become more involved.
      Well for starts, I'd be happy to take people onto the PPI project.

      Now that it is at beta, most of the hard problems have been solved, and a lot of what is left are things like testing, playing around with it and seeing what breaks, and starting in on the higher order things...

      And as big perl projects go, this is going to be one of the bigger ones, so you get to see a number of interesting and tricky things at work.
Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by perrin (Chancellor) on Jan 28, 2005 at 03:57 UTC
    Rather than focusing on learning obscure and possibly non-useful idiosyncracies of Perl, I would suggest you learn how to write better perl programs. Read "Perl Medic" by Peter Scott. It is a great book about how to write perl code that you won't be ashamed of in a couple of years. Books like Conway's OO Perl tend to be interesting but impractical. (Should you really do a bunch of obfuscated things to hide your object properties behind closures? Probably not.) I do like the discussion of references and objects in "Advanced Perl Programming" though, and the algorithms books is pretty solid, so those are both excellent choices.
Re: Learning the Deeper Secrets of Perl
by Grundle (Scribe) on Jan 28, 2005 at 18:16 UTC
    Here are some steps to refine your Perl-Fu

    1) Read up on Algorithmic Time Complexities. Big-0, Big-Theta, etc.
    2) Write some basic data structures using PERL
    i.e. - Binary Search Tree, Linked List, Queue, Circular Queue

    3) Write some recursive algorithms.

    If you can do these things proficiently then you will have the knowlege to program whatever you want. Programming is not about the language, but about a certain way to think. Those three exercises are the basics of CS that any serious hacker should know.

      My background is administration, not CompSci. You lost me. ;-) I recognize some of the data structures you mentioned, for example, but not others. What are some good resources to learn about common algorithms, data structures, etc.?

      I reason that I can't be a good Perl programmer if I can't learn to be a good programmer in general...

      radiantmatrix
      require General::Disclaimer;
      s//2fde04abe76c036c9074586c1/; while(m/(.)/g){print substr(' ,JPacehklnorstu',hex($1),1)}

        One of the best online locations read up on general data structures and asymptotic time complexities would be the following URL

        http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Programming:Data_Structures

        This document gives a really great overview of all the major CS data structures and it even gives a nice explenation of Time-Complexities without going too in depth (It gets confusing when you start calculating complexities of recursive algorithms )

        Some of the pseudo-code and impelementations may be hard to understand, but what you cannot figure out based on this document you can definitely google. I was looking at the Linked-List explanation and I have defenitely seen better explanations before. There is no need to complicate such a simple concept...

        Good luck!

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