|laziness, impatience, and hubris|
(Aighearach) Re: Efficient Perl Programmingby Aighearach
|on Nov 10, 2000 at 18:14 UTC||Need Help??|
What I would advise if you want to get your program running faster, is to use Devel::OpProf. This ties right into the perlfaq 3 question, "How do I make my Perl program run faster?" The advice given is to improve your algorithm. Okay, but how to do that? One of the best ways to compare different ways of doing things is to look at the resources they take up. Benchmark.pm will tell you how fast a code fragment runs, but that information isn't very portable. On a machine with lots of RAM, you might be developing programs that are very fast, but will generally lag on other people's machines. Devel::OpProf lets you identify these bottlenecks, even when they aren't slowing you down.
As an example, lets consider that we want to make a list of 1000 elements, with each element set to 1.
On my machine, this outputs:
*** one() *** private variable 3002 constant item 2003 next statement 1009 private array 1004 numeric lt (<) 1001 logical and (&&) 1001 scalar assignment 1001 preincrement (++) 1000 iteration finalizer 1000 array element 1000 pushmark 8 glob value 4 subroutine entry 3 conditional expression 1 list assignment 1 block entry 1 array dereference 1 loop entry 1 loop exit 1 return 1 print 1 *** two() *** next statement 2009 private array 1004 constant item 1003 foreach loop iterator 1001 logical and (&&) 1001 array element 1000 scalar variable 1000 iteration finalizer 1000 scalar assignment 1000 pushmark 9 glob value 5 subroutine entry 3 block entry 1 list assignment 1 conditional expression 1 array dereference 1 foreach loop entry 1 loop exit 1 return 1 print 1 *** three() *** null operation 1002 constant item 1002 map iterator 1000 block 1000 pushmark 11 next statement 8 private array 4 glob value 4 subroutine entry 3 array dereference 2 list assignment 2 map 1 block entry 1 conditional expression 1 return 1 print 1 *** four() *** pushmark 12 next statement 9 private array 5 glob value 4 constant item 4 subroutine entry 3 array dereference 2 list assignment 2 repeat (x) 1 conditional expression 1 null operation 1 array slice 1 block entry 1 return 1 print 1 Benchmark: running test_four, test_one, test_three, test_two, each for at least 3 CPU seconds... test_one: 3 wallclock secs ( 3.16 usr + 0.00 sys = 3.16 CPU) @ 274.68/s (n=868) test_two: 3 wallclock secs ( 3.25 usr + 0.00 sys = 3.25 CPU) @ 359.08/s (n=1167) test_three: 3 wallclock secs ( 3.01 usr + 0.00 sys = 3.01 CPU) @ 408.64/s (n=1230) test_four: 3 wallclock secs ( 3.27 usr + 0.01 sys = 3.28 CPU) @ 501.83/s (n=1646)
So, while Benchmark could tell us which is faster, it doesn't really tell us why. Devel::OpProf shows us that it is because of the number of temporary variables, &&'s, assignments, etc.
(while not really relevant to the point of this post, I should point out that probably a better idea than the slice in #4 is to just my @list = (1) x 1000;, because it is more readable. But, you are welcome to profile them to see if there is an algorithmical difference... ;)
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