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Find duplicate files.

by salvadors (Pilgrim)
on Jan 01, 2001 at 22:10 UTC ( #49198=CUFP: print w/ replies, xml ) Need Help??

So, I was running out of disk space on a partition, and I remembered that I had a perl script that would find all duplicated files for me, that I'd found somewhere about 6 or 7 ago, when I was first playing with Perl 4, but didn't really know how to do much.

So I dug it out, read it, and realised how horrible it was. I was tempted to rewrite it, but instead I decided to google for "perl duplicate files" first. I found a couple of other scripts there, but they were pretty horrible too. In particular the first file there, which is basically a comparison between doing in perl vs shell, does a checksum hashing on every file. So I decided I would indeed write my own, which turned out to be about 7 times faster that this one (which was in turn twice as fast as my original script):

#!/usr/bin/perl -w use strict; use File::Find; use Digest::MD5; my %files; my $wasted = 0; find(\&check_file, $ARGV[0] || "."); local $" = ", "; foreach my $size (sort {$b <=> $a} keys %files) { next unless @{$files{$size}} > 1; my %md5; foreach my $file (@{$files{$size}}) { open(FILE, $file) or next; binmode(FILE); push @{$md5{Digest::MD5->new->addfile(*FILE)->hexdigest}},$file; } foreach my $hash (keys %md5) { next unless @{$md5{$hash}} > 1; print "$size: @{$md5{$hash}}\n"; $wasted += $size * (@{$md5{$hash}} - 1); } } 1 while $wasted =~ s/^([-+]?\d+)(\d{3})/$1,$2/; print "$wasted bytes in duplicated files\n"; sub check_file { -f && push @{$files{(stat(_))[7]}}, $File::Find::name; }

Tony

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Re: Find duplicate files.
by mwp (Hermit) on Jan 02, 2001 at 21:31 UTC
    Very nice!

    If the other monks here think it's solid and all, you should OO it and send it to the author of File::Find as File::Find::Duplicates. =)

Re: Find duplicate files.
by grinder (Bishop) on Feb 26, 2001 at 19:56 UTC

    Interesting. I wrote my own that does pretty much the same thing, but in a different way (I only use one hash, so I suspect it will use less memory (but see response below for the final word)).

    #! /usr/bin/perl -w use strict; use File::Find; use Digest::MD5; my %digest; my $total_bytes = 0; my $dups = 0; sub wanted { return unless -f $_; my $bytes = -s _; return unless $bytes; if( !open IN, $_ ) { print "Cannot open $_ for input: $!\n"; return; } my $md5 = Digest::MD5->new; my $d = $md5->addfile( *IN )->digest; close IN; if( defined $digest{$d} ) { print "$bytes\t$digest{$d}\t$File::Find::name\n"; $total_bytes += $bytes; ++$dups; } else { $digest{$d} = $File::Find::name; } } foreach my $d ( @ARGV ) { print "=== directory $d\n"; find \&wanted, $d; } printf "Statistics: Duplicates: %12d Bytes: %12d KBytes: %12d MBytes: %12d GBytes: %12d\n", $dups, $total_bytes, $total_bytes / (1024**1), $total_bytes / (1024**2), $total_bytes / (1024**3);

    It is very verbose, but that's because I pipe the output into something that can be handed off to users in a spreadsheet so that they can do their own housekeeping (2Gb of duplicates in 45Go of files...).

    BTW, you can also save a squidgin of memory by using the digest() method, rather than the hexdigest() method, since the value is not intended for human consumption.

      Yes, but there is a fundamental difference...

      The first script will only do MD5 hashes on files if there is more than one file with the same file size, then compares the MD5s for the files of that size. Yours MD5's *everything*, then compares *all* the MD5s. If a file has a unique filesize, it *can't* have a duplicate.

      Depending on the make up of the files, this can have a dramatic effect:

      Files: 15272 Duplicates: 999 Bytes: 15073525
      Results:
      First script: real 0m11.855s user 0m2.590s sys 0m1.640s Second script: real 0m49.589s user 0m17.110s sys 0m6.500s
      The second script is four times slower than the first...

      Admittedly, if all your files were the same size there would be no difference, but in most cases, the first script will win. But hey...

        Me again (posted as Anonymous Monk last time) As above, I drew a blank on google, and was amazed that even stuff written in C and posted on Freshmeat was stupidly slow at finding duplicate files. I knew I should have checked Perlmonks sooner :-) Just to point out the differences in real-time speed depending on how much of how many files you read in in the comparison step, I coded up another version in a little (fully functional though) utility.

        The code for script three is below

        Benchmarks:

        scenario 1: a bundle of MP3 files
        number of files: 5969
        Number of duplicates: 11
        Total size of all files: 16,560,706,048 (~16 gigs)

        (script one - original, MD5 hash files with same file size)

        ... 37,411,688 bytes in duplicated files real 5m1.753s user 1m48.760s sys 0m31.010s
        (script two - MD5 hash calculated on *all* files)
        Duplicates: 11 Bytes: 37411688 real 17m1.262s user 6m56.060s sys 1m59.830s
        fdupes (C program from freshmeat.net - uses same algorithm as script two)
        real 6m25.131s user 2m42.310s sys 0m32.450s
        (script three - see below, read up to first \n char for initial check, then read whole file in for full check. No MD5s calculated at all)
        37,411,688 bytes in duplicated files real 0m48.545s user 0m2.150s sys 0m1.460s
        Yes, that *is* 48 seconds rather than 5 or 17 minutes. This is because script 3 reads the first line in as a comparison first - creating an MD5 hash requires that the whole file is read in.

        Scenario 2: home directory
        number of files: 15280
        Number of duplicates: 998
        Total size of all files: 677,698,560 (677 megs)

        Script one results

        15,073,517 bytes in duplicated files real 0m9.745s user 0m2.610s sys 0m1.220s
        Script two results
        Duplicates: 998 Bytes: 15073517 real 0m51.197s user 0m17.520s sys 0m6.700s
        fdupes (C program from freshmeat.net - uses same algorithm as script two)
        real 0m18.332s user 0m8.080s sys 0m5.270s
        Script three results
        15,069,331 bytes in duplicated files real 0m12.924s user 0m3.110s sys 0m2.510s
        (Note less duplicates found by script three as it skips all the small files < 100 bytes)

        The third script is slower than the first in this situation as it must do multiple compares (ie a with b, a with c, a with d) rather than using the MD5 hashing technique It would be even slower if we counted small files (timed at around 23 seconds). Both 1 and 3 are still *much* faster than 2 though. The fdupes benchmarks are just in there for comparison to show how a bad algorithm can slow down a fast language.

        Also note that not using MD5 hashes means I suffer if there are three or more identical, large, files, but I wanted to be *absolutely* sure not to get any false positives and MD5 hashing doesn't (quite) do that. So I do a byte-for-byte comparison between possible pairs.

        There is almost certainally another way - we could do two passes using the MD5 technique, creating MD5 hashes for the first (say) 200 bytes of each file in the first pass, then MD5-ing on the whole file if the first ones match. This should give us good performance on both large numbers of duplicated small files *and* small numbers of duplicates of large files. But that's something for another day, and I somehow *prefer* to do byte-by-byte checks. Paranoia, I guess.

        Anyway - here's the code...

        fdupes.pl (usage: fdupes.pl <start dir>):

        #!/usr/bin/perl -w # Usage: ./fdupes.pl <start directory> use strict; use Term::ReadKey; use File::Find; # testing - 0 for interactive mode, 1 to skip all deletion etc my $testing = 0; # skip files smaller than 100 bytes. Set to zero if you like... my $minsize = 100; my $filecount = my $bytecount = my $fileschecked = my $wasted = 0; my %files = (); &usage unless (@ARGV); sub wanted { return unless -f; my $filesize = (stat($_))[7]; $bytecount += $filesize; return unless $filesize > $minsize; # skip small files $filecount++; push @{$files{$filesize}}, $File::Find::name; } find(\&wanted, $ARGV[0] || "."); # update progress display 1000 times maximum my $update_period = int($filecount/1000)+1; if ($fileschecked % $update_period == 0) { print "Progress: $fileschecked/$filecount\r"; # note \r does carriage return, but NO LINE FEED # for progress display } my @dupesets; # list of lists - @{$dupesets[0]} = (file1, file2) # where file1 and file2 are dupes foreach my $size (keys %files) { my @entries = @{$files{$size}}; my $samesizecount = scalar @entries; if (@{$files{$size}} == 1) { # unique size $fileschecked++; next; } # duplicates by file size.. Check if files are the same while (my $base = shift @entries) { # get first entry in list under filesize my @dupes = (); my $count = 0; while ($count <= $#entries) { # go through all @entries my $compare = $entries[$count]; if (&same($base, $compare)) { # remove "compare" from list so it can't be used # on next run splice(@entries, $count,1); # removed "compare" from list - update progress if (++$fileschecked % $update_period == 0) { print "Progress: $fileschecked/$filecount\r"; } if (@dupes) { # already have some dupes - just add duplicate # #n to list push @dupes, $compare; $wasted += $size; } else { # no dupes yet - include base file and duplicate # #1 in list push @dupes, ($base, $compare); $wasted += $size; } } else { $count++; # only increase counter if not a dupe - note splice # will break $array[$position] loop otherwise } } if (@dupes) { push @dupesets, \@dupes; } # "base" file removed from list of files to check - update # progress meter if (++$fileschecked % $update_period == 0) { print "Progress: $fileschecked/$filecount\r"; } } } if (@dupesets) { my @deletelist = (); # at least one set of duplicates exists # number of sets of duplicates my $dupesetcount = scalar(@dupesets); my $dupesetcounter = 0; foreach my $setref (@dupesets) { if ($testing) { print @$setref, "\n"; next; } $dupesetcounter++; my @dupes = @$setref; print "Duplicates found ($dupesetcounter / $dupesetcount)", "... Should I keep...\n"; my $count = 0; # print up list of options of which file to keep while ($count <= $#dupes) { # go through all @entries my $entry = $dupes[$count]; print $count + 1, " : $entry\n"; $count++; } # alternative options - keep all files, skip to end print "0: All\n"; print "A: Skip all remaining duplicates\n"; # use ReadKey to get user input ReadMode 4; # Turn off controls keys my $key = ''; while (not defined ($key = ReadKey(-1))) { # No key yet } ReadMode 0; # Reset tty mode before exiting if ($key eq 'A') { # skip any remaining dupes and get to deletion bit last; } # not a number or 'A' - default to zero (ie keep all files) $key = '0' unless ($key =~ /^\d+$/); if ($key == 0) { # ALL - don't delete anything #print "you chose: ALL\n"; } elsif (defined $dupes[$key-1]) { print "you chose: ", $dupes[$key-1], "\n"; my @list_to_delete = @dupes; # remove file to keep from list splice(@list_to_delete, $key-1, 1); # add rest to deletelist push @deletelist, @list_to_delete; } else { #print "you chose: invalid number... (nothing will", # " be deleted)\n"; } print "\n"; } # confirm deletion if any files are needing deleting if (@deletelist) { print "\n------------------------\n"; print "list of files to delete:\n"; foreach (@deletelist) { print "$_\n"; } print "\nAre you *sure* you want to delete all these files?", " (Y/N)\n"; ReadMode 4; # Turn off controls keys my $key = ''; while (not defined ($key = ReadKey(-1))) { # No key yet } ReadMode 0; # Reset tty mode before exiting if (lc($key) eq 'y') { print "deleting\n"; unlink @deletelist; } else { print "wussing out\n"; } } 1 while $wasted =~ s/^([-+]?\d+)(\d{3})/$1,$2/; print "$wasted bytes in duplicated files\n"; } # routine to check equivalence in files. pass 1 checks first # "line" of file (up to \n char), rest of file checked if 1st # line matches sub same { local($a, $b) = @_; open(A, $a) || die; open(B, $b) || die; if (<A> ne <B>) { # FIRST LINE is not the same return 0; # not duplicates } else { # try WHOLE FILE local $/ = undef; return <A> eq <B>; } } sub usage { print "Usage: $0 <start directory>\n"; exit; }
Re: Find duplicate files.
by lemming (Priest) on Jun 02, 2001 at 20:42 UTC

    Interesting. I just went through the similar problem of combining four computer's worth of archives. In some cases I had near duplicates due to slight doc changes and the like, so I wanted a bit more information. I had a second program do the deletes. (About 9,000 files)

    I couldn't go by dates, due to bad file management

    Note that the file statement uses the 3 arg version. I had some badly named files such as ' ha'. I wish I could remember the monk name that pointed out the documentation for me.

    #!/usr/bin/perl # allstat.pl use warnings; use strict; use File::Find; use File::Basename; use Digest::MD5; my %hash; my @temp; while (my $dir = shift @ARGV) { die "Give me a directory to search\n" unless (-d "$dir"); File::Find::find (\&wanted,"$dir"); } exit; sub wanted { return unless (-f $_); my $md5; my $base = File::Basename::basename($File::Find::name, ""); my $size = -s "$base"; if ($size >= 10000000) { # They slowed down the check enough that I + skip them if ($size >= 99999999) { $size = 99999999; } $md5 = 'a'x32; # At this point I'll just hand check, less than a +dozen files } else { $md5 = md5file("$base"); } if ($File::Find::name =~ /\t/) { # Just in case, this screws up our +tab delimited file warn "'$File::Find::name' has tabs in it\n"; } printf("%32s\t%8d\t%s\t%s\n", $md5, $size, $File::Find::name, $base) +; } sub md5file { my ($file) = @_; unless (open FILE, "<", "$file" ) { warn "Can't open '$file': $!"; return -1; #Note we don't want to die just because of one file. } binmode(FILE); my $chksum = Digest::MD5->new->addfile(*FILE)->hexdigest; close(FILE); return $chksum; }
      For just comparing files, it might be enough to do a CRC32 and use this along with the file size. This has the added advantage of allowing quick scans through ZIP files for dupes as well (using Archive::Zip of course) because ZIP files already have crc32 values in them.

      The CRC32 found in Compress::Zlib runs 82% faster than Digest::MD5 on my system, using the following benchmark program:

      #!/usr/bin/perl -w use strict; use IO::File; use Compress::Zlib (); use Digest::MD5; use Benchmark; use constant BUFSIZE => 32768; sub crc32 { my $fh = shift; binmode($fh); sysseek($fh, 0, 0); # rewind my $buffer = ' ' x BUFSIZE; my $crc = 0; while ($fh->sysread($buffer, BUFSIZE)) { $crc = Compress::Zlib::crc32($buffer, $crc); } return $crc; } sub md5 { my $fh = shift; seek($fh, 0, 0); # rewind my $md5 = Digest::MD5->new(); $md5->addfile($fh); return $md5->digest; } foreach my $file (@ARGV) { my $fh = IO::File->new($file); binmode($fh); next if !defined($fh); Benchmark::cmpthese(-10, { "crc32 $file", sub { crc32($fh) }, "md5 $file", sub { md5($fh) } }); }
      thanks to lemming's code for generating md5 hashes above, It became the first part in finding duplicates for me. I used the following code to find duplicates and show them. Running the same code again with 'remove' will 'move' all the duplicates to a ./trash/ subdirectory. Its a little too specific based on my specific needs, but might be a nice start for someone else needing the same. It went through 25k files, finding 11k duplicates, moving them to a ./trash/ directory in about 60 seconds. this code below takes the output of lemmings code above.
      #!/usr/bin/perl -w # usesage: dupDisplay.pl fileMD5.txt [remove] # input file has the following form: # 8e773d2546655b84dd1fdd31c735113e 304048 /media/PICTURES-1/my +media/pictures/pics/20041004-kids-camera/im001020.jpg im001020.jpg # e01d4d804d454dd1fb6150fc74a0912d 296663 /media/PICTURES-1/my +media/pictures/pics/20041004-kids-camera/im001021.jpg im001021.jpg use strict; use warnings; my %seen; my $fileCNT = 0; my $origCNT = 0; my $delCNT = 0; my $failCNT = 0; my $remove = 'remove' if $ARGV[1]; $remove = '' if !$ARGV[1]; print "\n\n ... running in NON removal mode.\n\n" if !$remove; open IN,"< $ARGV[0]" or die ".. we don't see a file to read: $ARGV[0]" +; open OUT,"> $ARGV[0]_new.temp" or die ".. we can't write the file: $AR +GV[0]_new.temp"; open OUTdel,"> $ARGV[0]_deleted" or die ".. we can't write the file: $ +ARGV[0]_deleted"; open OUTfail,"> $ARGV[0]_failed" or die ".. we can't write the file: $ +ARGV[0]_failed"; print "\n ... starting to read find duplicats in: $ARGV[0]\n"; if(! -d './trash/'){mkdir './trash/' or die " !! couldn't make trash d +irectory.\n $! \n";} while(<IN>){ my $line = $_; chomp $line; $fileCNT++; my ($md5,$filesize,$pathfile,$file) = split /\t+/,$line,4; if(exists $seen{"$md5:$filesize"}){ my $timenow = time; my $trashFile = './trash/' . $file . "_" . $timenow; # moves dup +licate file to trash with timestamp extension. #if( ! unlink($pathfile){print OUTfail "$pathfile\n"; $failCNT+ ++;} if($remove){if( ! rename $pathfile,$trashFile){print OUTfail "$pa +thfile\n"; $failCNT++;}} $seen{"$md5:$filesize"} .= "\n $pathfile"; $delCNT++; print " files: $fileCNT originals: $origCNT files to delete: $d +elCNT failed: $failCNT \r"; }else{ $seen{"$md5:$filesize"} = "$pathfile"; printf OUT ("%32s\t%8d\t%s\t%s\n", $md5,$filesize,$pathfile,$file +); $origCNT++; print " files: $fileCNT originals: $origCNT files to delete: $d +elCNT failed: $failCNT \r"; } } foreach my $key (keys %seen){ print OUTdel " $seen{$key}\n"; } print " files: $fileCNT originals: $origCNT files to delete: $delCNT + failed: $failCNT \n\n";

      I am new to perl (and to writing code) and I have just been in an excellent course organized by Barcelona_pm. I have rewritten lemming code as an exercise of using Moose. To improve speed, following above suggestions, files with similar size are first identified and, afterwards, md5 value is calculated in these files. Because this is baby-code, please feell free to recomend any RTFM $manual that I sould review to improve the code. Thanks for this great language!

      (I have to thank Alba from Barcelona_pm for suggestions on how to improve the code).

      This is the definition of the object "FileDups"

      package FileDups; use Digest::MD5; use Moose; use namespace::autoclean; has 'name' => (is => 'ro', isa => 'Str', required => 1,); has 'pathname' => (is => 'ro', isa => 'Str', required => 1,); has 'max_size' => (is => 'ro', isa => 'Num', required => 1,); has 'big' => (is => 'rw', isa => 'Bool', required => 1, default = +> 0); has 'unread' => (is => 'rw', isa => 'Bool', required => 1, default = +> 0); has 'dupe' => (is => 'rw', isa => 'Bool', required => 1, default = +> 0); has 'md5' => (is => 'ro', isa => 'Str', lazy => 1, builder = +> '_calculate_md5'); has 'size' => (is => 'ro', isa => 'Num', lazy => 1, builder = +> '_calculate_size'); sub _calculate_size { my $self = shift; my $size = -s $self->name; if (-s $self->name > $self->max_size) { $size = $self->max_size; $self->big(1); } return $size; } sub _calculate_md5 { my $self = shift; my $file = $self->pathname; my $size = $self->size; my $chksum = 0; if ($size == $self->max_size) { $chksum = 'a'x32; } else { my $fh; unless (open $fh, "<", "$file" ) { $self->unread(1); return -1; #return -1 and exit from subrutine if file can +not be opened } binmode($fh); $chksum = Digest::MD5->new->addfile($fh)->hexdigest; close($fh); } return $chksum; } ;1

      And this is the main package that lists duplicate files, big files and unread files.

      #!/usr/bin/env perl # References: # http://drdobbs.com/web-development/184416070 use strict; use warnings; use File::Find; use lib qw(lib); use FileDups; use Data::Dumper; # Hash of => [array of [array]], [array of objects] my (%dup, %sizes, @object, $number_files, $number_size_dups); my $max_size = 99999999; # Size above of whitch md5 will n +ot be calculated my $return = "Press return to continue \n\n"; my $line = "-"x70 . "\n"; while (my $dir = shift @ARGV) { # Find and classify files die "\"$dir\" is not a directory. Give me a directory to search\n" + unless (-d "$dir"); File::Find::find (\&wanted,"$dir"); } print "\n"; foreach (@object) { # Calculates md5 for files with equ +al size if ($sizes{$_->size} == "1") { $number_size_dups += 1; print "$number_size_dups Files with th +e same size \r"; $_->dupe(1); # The object has another object with t +he same size $_->md5; # Calculates md5 } } foreach (@object) { # Creates a hash of md5 values if ($_->dupe == 1) { # for files with the same size if (exists $dup{$_->md5}) { push @{$dup{$_->md5}}, [$_->size, $_->name, $_->pathname]; } else { $dup{$_->md5} = [ [$_->size, $_->name, $_->pathname] ]; } } } print "\n\nDuplicated files\n $line $return"; my $pausa4 = <>; foreach (sort keys %dup) { # sort hash by md5sum if ($#{$dup{$_}} > 0) # $_ = keys { # if we have more than 1 array whithin th +e same hash printf("\n%8s %10.10s %s\n", "Size", "Name", "Pathname"); foreach ( @{$dup{$_}} ) # $_ = keys, $dupes{keys} = +list of references (scalars) { # iterate trough the first dimension of t +he array printf("%8d %10.10s %s\n",@{$_}); # dereference referen +ce to array } } } my $r1 = &list_files("Big files","big",@object); # List big files my $r2 = &list_files("Unread files","unread",@object); # List unrea +d files sub wanted { return unless (-f $_); my $file = FileDups->new(name => $_, pathname => $File::Find::name +, max_size => $max_size); $number_files += 1; print "$number_files Files seen\r"; if ($file->size == $max_size) { # Identifies big files $sizes{$file->size} = "0"; # We do not check md5 for bi +g files } elsif (exists $sizes{$file->size}) { # There are more the +n one file with this size $sizes{$file->size} = "1"; } else { $sizes{$file->size} = "0"; # This is a new size value, +not duplicated } push @object, $file; # Puts the object in the @obje +ct array } sub list_files { # List objects according to criter +ia: my ($title,$criteria,@object) = @_; # (a) big files; (b) +unread files print "\n \n $title \n" . $line; my $pausa = <>; foreach (@object) { if ($_->$criteria) { printf(" %10.10s %s\n",$_->name,$_->pathname); } } print $line; }

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