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Re^4: Derangements iterator (callbacks)

by Corion (Pope)
on Jan 01, 2006 at 17:53 UTC ( #520267=note: print w/replies, xml ) Need Help??

in reply to Re^3: Derangements iterator (callbacks)
in thread Derangements iterator

Only having read the two abstracts, it seems to me that the authors rely on a Scheme-like language that has continuations or at least coroutines. With coroutines, it's trivial to convert between an "enumerator" (callback) and a "stream" (list/iterator). Without a coroutine mechanism, it's not as easy. As you seem to have read the paper, can you maybe post a link to the actual paper or, even better, give an application of the automatic way discussed there in Perl?

Using the module, it's quite easy to have generators and to convert between enumerator and iterator, but Coro has the disadvantage of relying on a GPLed library and it doesn't (immediately) work on Win32. Without Coro, one has to manage the stack oneself and/or to create a large buffer for all values passed by the enumerator from what I know. But maybe the paper shows a technique I don't know (yet).

Update: I had another look at Coro, and it isn't under the GPL. I also found that half-support for Win32/MSVC is there, now. Yay! ;)

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Re^5: Derangements iterator (callbacks)
by Anonymous Monk on Jan 01, 2006 at 18:21 UTC
    From enumerators to cursors: turning the left fold inside out...
    The mechanical inversion procedure presented in * had a catch: it relies on shift/reset (or call/cc plus a mutable cell, which is the same thing). How can we do such an inversion in Haskell? We can introduce a right fold enumerator, which is more amenable to such transformations. Or we can use a continuation monad and emulate shift/reset. The present article demonstrates the third approach: a non-recursive left-fold. We argue that such a left fold is the best interface for a collection. Indeed, given the non-recursive left-fold we can:
    • instantiate it into the ordinary left fold
    • instantiate in into a stream
    If we turn two enumerators into streams, we can *safely* interleave these streams.

    We should point out that the relation between the left fold, the non-recursive left fold and the stream is deep. The ordinary, recursive left fold is the fix point of the non-recursive one. On the other hand, the instantiation of the non-recursive left fold as a stream, as we shall see, effectively captures a continuation in a monadic action. We see once again that call/cc and Y are indeed two sides of the same coin **.

    The rest of the article demonstrates the inversion procedure. The procedure is generic, as evidenced by its polymorphic type. We illustrate the technique on an example of a file considered a collection of characters. Haskell provides a stream interface to that collection: hGetChar. We implement a left fold enumerator. We then turn that enumerator back to a stream: we implement a function 'myhgetchar' _only_ in terms of the left fold enumerator. The approach is general and uses no monadic heavy lifting.

      Well, seeing as apparently you understand this article maybe you could give us an example how to turn foreach (@list){ ... } into a cursor based approach. Since perl doesnt support first class continuations I guess you will need to implement this "left fold" operator. Which in itself would be pretty interesting. Actually even explaining in normal english (unlike the functional jargon gobbly-gook that the article uses) what this "left fold" operator does would be nice.


        #!/usr/bin/perl -w # A non-recursive left fold (foldl), taken from Language::Functional sub foldl(&$$) { my($f, $z, $xs) = @_; map { $z = $f->($z, $_) } @{$xs}; return $z; } # Recursive foldl sub foldl_rec { my($f, $z, $xs) = @_; my($head, @tail) = @$xs; $head ? foldl_rec($f, $f->($z,$head), \@tail) : $z; } # "Fold" is the universal list traversal function. Also known as # "reduce" (see List::Util) and "accumulate" (C++ STL). Any function # you write that munges lists (map, grep, etc.) can be rewritten in # terms of a fold. It essentially takes a list and replaces each "con +s" # constructor with a function. Stated another way, if you have a list # @a = (1, 2, 3, 4), fold will replace the commas with another functio +n # of your choosing. Let's say you want the sum of the elements in @a. # Replace the commas with a '+' sign, (1 + 2 + 3 + 4). Easy isn't it? # You might write it as... $s = foldl(sub{ $_[0] + $_[1] }, 0, [1..4]); print "sum = $s\n"; # 10 # addition to providing the function and the list, you supply an # initial value to start out with. In the case of $sum above, we use # 0. If you want the product of the elements in the list you can chan +ge # to... $p = foldl(sub{ $_[0] * $_[1] }, 1, [1..4]); print "product = $p\n"; # 24 # The "left" portion comes into play because we start at the left end +of # the list and work towards the right. The actual sum that is # calculated is (((((0+1)+2)+3)+4). It only makes a difference when t +he # function used isn't associative. Subtraction is an example... $l = foldl(sub{ $_[0] - $_[1] }, 0, [1..4]); print "left fold subtraction = $l\n"; # ((((0-1)-2)-3)-4) == -10 # Recursive foldr sub foldr_rec { my($f, $z, $xs) = @_; my($head, @tail) = @$xs; $head ? $f->($head,foldr_rec($f, $z, \@tail)) : $z; } $r = foldr_rec(sub{ $_[0] - $_[1] }, 0, [1..4]); print "right fold subtraction = $r\n"; # (1-(2-(3-(4-0)))) == -2 # The dual of "fold" is the universal list creation function, "unfold" +. # See more unfold in action... # #
        Actually even explaining in normal english (unlike the functional jargon gobbly-gook that the article uses) what this "left fold" operator does would be nice.
        Another explaination of the original paper.

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