|| Update: bah, that crafty tye previously posted essentially the same iterator...
I wrote up this iterator a while ago for some now-long-forgotten purpose. I just found it laying around, so I thought I should post it..
An integer partition of n is a set of positive integers which adds up to n. For instance, the
integer partitions of 5 are:
5, 4+1, 3+2, 3+1+1, 2+2+1, 2+1+1+1, 1+1+1+1+1
Note that we do not care about the order of terms in the addition.
This iterator generates all the integer partitions of a given number. It's an implementation of the very simple algorithm from this paper.
It has the nice feature that it is memoryless -- that is, it is not a closure which keeps internal state. To get the next partition in the sequence, just pass in the previous one. In this sense, it is similar to tye's memoryless iterator for permutations.
This iterator outputs the partitions in reverse lexicographic order. Since the first partition of N in this ordering is just the singleton list containing N itself, all you have to do to start it up is call it with the single argument N. There is no real error checking built-in -- you have to call it with a list of positive integers.
See also: Generator of integer partitionts of n, RFC: Integer::Partition::Unrestricted, How to generate restricted partitions of an integer, puzzle: how many ways to make $100, integer partition golf