The tests of which you speak here really move into the realm of process data integrity, not the specific testing of any particular application.
Like any “manufacturing production-line,” the shop must have the means to validate where the data is actually coming from, and that the correct parameters were specified to the applications that were run. This is an ongoing part of the daily production process.
This presupposes, of course, that the applications themselves are “known good,” such that it's all essentially worthless if they're not. In other words, they do have a test-suite, it does validate the handling of the data that is flowing through each application, and it does also check that not-valid data will be detected and rejected. Each time an application is deployed to the production environment (by the personnel that is responsible for that ... not the developers themselves), it must clear all tests.
So, the two concerns are complementary to each other, not exclusive.