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Problem printing return value from a subroutine

by zing (Beadle)
on Oct 04, 2012 at 02:17 UTC ( #997160=perlquestion: print w/ replies, xml ) Need Help??
zing has asked for the wisdom of the Perl Monks concerning the following question:

Hi all, I have this code
#This program read the triplets from file named "data" into #an array of array. use strict; use warnings; use Data::Dumper; use Graph; use Graph::Subgraph; my @S; while (<>) { push @S, [ split ]; } print "-----TRIPLETS-------\n"; print Dumper \@S; #Make a copy of @S my @trip = map { [@$_] } @S; # Find the number of vertices my @L; for my $i ( 0 .. $#S ) { for my $j ( 0 .. $#{ $S[$i] } ) { push (@L,$S[$i][$j]); } } my %seen; @L = grep { ! $seen{ $_ }++ } @L; print " ----VERTICES------\n"; print Dumper \@L; # Now lets generate the G(L) # In order to generate the G(L) we'll extract first two columns of S i +nto another matrix my @GL=@S; splice(@$_, 2, 1) foreach @GL; print "----EDGE LIST TO BUILD G(L)-----\n"; print Dumper \@GL; #my %h = map { $_->[0] => $_->[1] } @S; #print Dumper(\%h); ##### CONNECTED COMPONENTS ########## my $g = Graph->new( undirected => 1 ); my @a; my @b; for (my $p = 0; $p <= 2; $p++) { $a[$p]=$S[$p][0]; } for (my $q = 0; $q <= 2; $q++) { $b[$q]=$S[$q][1]; } for (my $r = 0; $r <= 2; $r++) { $g->add_edge($a[$r], $b[$r]); } my @subgraphs = $g->connected_components; my @allgraphs; my $V = $g->vertices; print "Number of taxa=$V\n"; my $q=scalar @subgraphs; print "Number of connected components ", $q , "\n"; print "First connected component: ", @{ $subgraphs[0] }, "\n"; print "First connected component element: ", $subgraphs[0][1], "\n\n"; sub induced { my (@z)=@_; for my $QT (\@z ){ #print Dumper $QT; for my $triplet ( @trip ){ my %Pie; undef @Pie{@$QT}; delete @Pie{ @$triplet }; print "@$triplet\n" if keys(%Pie) <= ( @$QT - @$triplet ) ; return (@$triplet); } }} my @C; my $d; my $p=$#subgraphs+1; for ($d=$p; $d >=1; $d--) { print "component $d = @{ $subgraphs[$d-1] }\n"; my $qw=induced(@{ $subgraphs[$d-1] }); print "induced=$qw\n"; }
It takes in the data from data file ,the content of which is
b c a a c d d e b
---OUTPUT----
----TRIPLETS------- $VAR1 = [ [ 'b', 'c', 'a' ], [ 'a', 'c', 'd' ], [ 'd', 'e', 'b' ] ]; ----VERTICES------ $VAR1 = [ 'b', 'c', 'a', 'd', 'e' ]; ----EDGE LIST TO BUILD G(L)----- $VAR1 = [ [ 'b', 'c' ], [ 'a', 'c' ], [ 'd', 'e' ] ]; Number of taxa=5 Number of connected components 2 First connected component: cba First connected component element: b component 2 = e d induced=3 component 1 = c b a b c a induced=3
Problem is with the last 5 lines of the output ,it should have been this
component 2 = e d component 1 = c b a induced=b c a
I know the problem is there in the way the subroutine return value is saved. Please suggest me why is this happening and how to fix it.

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Re: Problem printing return value from a subroutine
by chromatic (Archbishop) on Oct 04, 2012 at 03:58 UTC

    induced() returns a list flattened from an array. my $qw=induced(@{ $subgraphs[$d-1] }); evaluates that return value in scalar context. If you want to return a scalar, you should join the elements of the array. If you want to return a list, you need to capture it as an array or something which provides list context.


    Improve your skills with Modern Perl: the free book.

      But the problem chromatic is this :-
      component 2 = e d induced=3 component 1 = c b a b c a induced=3
      For component 2 (e d),, there shouldn't be any return value,as there is no line in data which has these vertices. Whereas for component 1(c b a), the first line of data file (b c a) should be returned.
Re: Problem printing return value from a subroutine
by AnomalousMonk (Abbot) on Oct 04, 2012 at 04:07 UTC

    Further to chromatic's reply: In scalar context, an array evaluates to the number of elements of the array. This may be where you are getting your 3 from.

      Ok so I changed the last lines of the code
      my (@qw)=induced(@{ $subgraphs[$d-1] }); print Dumper @qw; }
      But still incorrect output
      component 2 = e d $VAR1 = 'b'; $VAR2 = 'c'; $VAR3 = 'a'; component 1 = c a b b c a $VAR1 = 'b'; $VAR2 = 'c'; $VAR3 = 'a';

        I must admit I haven't the foggiest notion what your code is trying to accomplish. However, I have never felt that mere ignorance should deter one from offering advice, so...

        sub induced { my (@z)=@_; for my $QT (\@z ){ #print Dumper $QT; for my $triplet ( @trip ){ my %Pie; undef @Pie{@$QT}; delete @Pie{ @$triplet }; print "@$triplet\n" if keys(%Pie) <= ( @$QT - @$triplet ) ; return (@$triplet); } }}

        The quoted subroutine has two odd, nested for-loops. The outer loop

        for my $QT (\@z ){ ... undef @Pie{@$QT}; ... print "@$triplet\n" if keys(%Pie) <= ( @$QT - @$triplet ) ; ... }

        uses the expression  \@z to create a single item loop list consisting of a reference to the  @z array. The loop will iterate once over this single reference, aliasing (or 'topicalizing', which I believe is the more apt term) its value to the  $QT scalar. The  $QT reference is used a couple of times, in each case being de-referenced to an array prior to use. So, what's the point? Why not just use the  @z array directly and forget about all the indirection and one-pass looping?

        The inner for-loop

        for my $triplet ( @trip ){ my %Pie; undef @Pie{@$QT}; delete @Pie{ @$triplet }; print "@$triplet\n" if keys(%Pie) <= ( @$QT - @$triplet ) ; return (@$triplet); }

        iterates over the global, spooky-action-at-a-distance-prone  @trip array, which seems as if it may have multiple elements. However, since the statement body of the loop ends with the
            return (@$triplet);
        statement, and assuming the  @trip array is not empty to begin with, the loop can only iterate once, another one-shot for-loop. Why not just something like
            my $triplet = $trip[0];
        with the rest of the loop body retained (except for using the  @z array directly rather than via a  $QT array reference de-reference)?

        So we end up with something like (again, I have no idea what this is supposed to do):

        sub induced { my (@z) = @_; my $triplet = $trip[0]; my %Pie; undef @Pie{ @z }; delete @Pie{ @$triplet }; print "@$triplet\n" if keys(%Pie) <= (@z - @$triplet); return @$triplet; }

        Minimizing the cruft and wasted motion may allow you to see more clearly the root causes of your problems. Anyway, that's my USD0.02. I hope it helps.

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