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1. What (if any) storage inefficiency (relative to hashes) is created in perl when using arrays for sparsely indexed data?

It all depends on 'how sparse'":

```\$a[ \$_*2 ] = \$_ for 1 .. 1e5;;
\$h{ \$_*2 } = \$_ for 1 .. 1e5;;

print total_size( \$_ ) for \( @a, %h );;
4497312
7393098

undef( @a ); undef( %h );;
\$a[ \$_*20 ] = \$_ for 1 .. 1e5;;
\$h{ \$_*20 } = \$_ for 1 .. 1e5;;

print total_size( \$_ ) for \( @a, %h );;
19177376
7493098

undef( @a ); undef( %h );;
\$a[ \$_*50 ] = \$_ for 1 .. 1e5;;
\$h{ \$_*50 } = \$_ for 1 .. 1e5;;

print total_size( \$_ ) for \( @a, %h );;
69509024
7526431

The hash size remains static for a given number of entries, regardless of how sparse they are.

At 1 in 2, the array uses a little over half the space of the hash; but by 1 in 20, almost 3 times as much and by 1 in 50 nearly 10 times as much.

And remember, if your integer range starts at 1 billion; the array would require ~12GB (of basically wasted space), to hold the lowest value. Whilst you could wrap that over in an api to subtract 1 billion from each index, the additional subroutine call overhead would completely negate the array's lookup speed advantage; and then some.

2. What (if any) lookup inefficiency (relative to arrays) is created in perl when using hashes for positive integer indexed keys?

Test:

```\$a[ \$_ * 20 ] = \$_ for 1 .. 1e5;;

\$found = 0; say time; defined( \$a[ \$_ ] ) and ++\$found for 1 .. 20e5;
+say time; say \$found;;
1359141040.60138
1359141041.00958
100000

\$h{ \$_ * 20 } = \$_ for 1 .. 1e5;;

\$found = 0; say time; exists( \$h{ \$_ } ) and ++\$found for 1 .. 20e5; s
+ay time; say \$found;;
1359141122.04252
1359141123.06596
100000

The array takes 0.4 seconds to do 2 million lookups of which 5% are found and 95% not.

The hash takes 1.02 seconds to do the same lookups.

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