You can look for yourself at the code for Exporter, and see that it's unlikely that adding a few items to the EXPORT list will impact your code's performance meaningfully. If you're facing performance issues, you'll want to look elsewhere. And as daxim said, you should profile rather than take wild guesses.
Where there may be some benefit is when using modules that autoload or eval subroutines into existence at import time. But even with those sorts of modules, there probably just isn't enough going on to worry about unless your profiling demonstrates a need to investigate this corner of your code base further.
There are still advantages to exporting/importing only what you need. The most oft-cited one is avoiding namespace pollution in the calling code. Another advantage from the perspective of the calling code is that by specifying exactly which subroutines to import on the use line, the calling code becomes more self-documenting.
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