Inline is fine, but it is perhaps not as well integrated into ExtUtils and module building as the standard XS interface.
To answer your question directly, you should #include the perl headers before your C code, unless there is good reason not to. That gives you macros and functions to ease writing your functions . This example is adapted from perlxstut, which I recommend to you:
MODULE = Foo PACKAGE = Foo
RETVAL = (input % 2 == 0);
I'd parse the command line in perl before calling library functions with the arguments.
To link to an external lib, #include <foo.h> (its header) in the xs file, and put the linker directive '-lfoo' in Makefile.PL's LIB parameter.
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