A slightly less simple obfuscation for a slightly less simple substitution cipher. My next stop in old forgotten encryption ciphers is the Playfair cipher. This is a slightly more obfuscated encryption cipher than my last one - In case you haven't noticed, I'm increasing the obfuscation level as the encryption algorithm increases. This either takes a file as a parameter to encrypt in playfair, or provided no input encrypts its __DATA__.
The Playfair cipher uses a 5 by 5 table containing a key word or phrase. Memorization of the keyword and 4 simple rules was all that was required to create the 5 by 5 table and use the cipher.
To generate the key table, one would first fill in the spaces in the table with the letters of the keyword (dropping any duplicate letters), then fill the remaining spaces with the rest of the letters of the alphabet in order (usually omitting "Q" to reduce the alphabet to fit, other versions put both "I" and "J" in the same space). The key can be written in the top rows of the table, from left to right, or in some other pattern, such as a spiral beginning in the upper-left-hand corner and ending in the center. The keyword together with the conventions for filling in the 5 by 5 table constitute the cipher key.
To encrypt a message, one would break the message into groups of 2 letters ("HelloWorld" becomes "HE LL OW OR LD"), and map them out on the key table. We imagine simple rectangles between sets of letters. Then apply the following 4 rules, in order, to each pair of letters in the plaintext:
If both letters are the same (or only one letter is left), add an "X" after the first letter. Encrypt the new pair and continue. Some variants of Playfair use "Q" instead of "X", but any uncommon monograph will do.
If the letters appear on the same row of your table, replace them with the letters to their immediate right respectively (wrapping around to the left side of the row if a letter in the original pair was on the right side of the row).
If the letters appear on the same column of your table, replace them with the letters immediately below respectively (wrapping around to the top side of the column if a letter in the original pair was on the bottom side of the column).
If the letters are not on the same row or column, replace them with the letters on the same row respectively but at the other pair of corners of the rectangle defined by the original pair. The order is important - the first encrypted letter of the pair is the one that lies on the same row as the first plaintext letter.
To decrypt, use the inverse of these 4 rules (dropping any extra "X"s (or "Q"s) that don't make sense in the final message when you finish).
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+argrill
__DATA__
The Playfair cipher is a manual symmetric encryption technique and was
+ the
first literal digraph substitution cipher. The scheme was invented in
+1854 by
Charles Wheatstone, but bears the name of Lord Playfair who promoted t
+he use
of the cipher. The technique encrypts pairs of letters (digraphs), in
+stead of
single letters as in the simple substitution cipher and rather more co
+mplex
Vigenere cipher systems then in use. The Playfair is thus significantl
+y harder
to break since the frequency analysis used for simple substitution cip
+hers
does not work with it.