in reply to flat-file vs DB_File

DB_File is faster.

There is often a tradeoff in dynamically allocated data structures between how little memory you use, and how fast your data access and manipulation can be. DB_File has unused memory sections. But that doesn't matter for access because you don't sequentially scan through the file, you jump right to the data, and it is a good thing for writing because if you want to add a little bit to one record, you don't have to rewrite the whole file to get the space.