http://www.perlmonks.org?node_id=1017876

BrowserUk operates in an environment in which it is vital to squeeze every last, living computron from any processor, algorithm or function with which he deals, so I am not inclined to dispute his assertion that indirect access is "vastly less efficient".

The "vastly less efficient" was in response *only* to 7stud's suggested: my @ydata = @{shift()};.

Duplicating multiple, multi-dimensional arrays (in the case of mat mult), in order to achieve the same, non-indirected notation as you get with aliasing is "vastly less efficient".

Taking that quote, out of that context, is a strawman.

I would say that the (untested) way I have re-written mmMxM() below is, to my taste, at least as clear as the original.

For this simple example, it's not horribly more complex I grant you. But that is the tip of the iceberg.

Rather than this hard-coded sized, square-matrix multiply, let's take the more general form of MxN MatMult:

```sub mmMxN {
our( @M, @N );
local( *M, *N ) = @_;
die "Incompatible matrix dimensions" unless @M == @{ \$N[0] };

my @C = map[ (0) x @M ], 0 .. \$#{ \$N[ 0 ] };

for my \$i ( 0 .. \$#M ) {
for my \$j ( 0 .. \$#{ \$N[0] } ) {
\$C[ \$i ][ \$j ] += \$M[ \$i ][ \$_ ] * \$N[ \$_ ][ \$j]  for 0 ..
+ \$#N;
}
}
return \@C;
}

Now the indirect notation would take a somewhat higher cost on clarity.

Now consider that this is a method within an OO module, and the matrices in question are named instance variables in the object:

```sub mmMxN {
my \$self = shift;
die "Incompatible matrix dimensions" unless @{ \$self->{M} } == @{
+\$self->{N}->[0] };

\$self->{R} = map[ (0) x @{ \$self->{M} } ], 0 .. \$#{ \$self->{N}->[
+0 ] };

for my \$i ( 0 .. \$#{ \$self->{M} } ) {
for my \$j ( 0 .. \$#{ \$self->{N}->[0] } ) {
\$self->{R}->[\$i]->[\$j] += \$self->{M}->[\$i]->[\$_] * \$self->
+{N}->[\$_]->[\$j] for 0 .. \$#{ \$self->{N} };
}
}
return \$self->{R};
}

Yes, you can use temporaries for the array refs; and I've also exaggerated the syntax problem for effect, but even without that, this is preferable:

```sub mmMxN {
our ( @M, @N );
my \$self = shift;
local( *M, *N ) = @{ \$self }{ M, N };
die "Incompatible matrix dimensions" unless @{ \$M } == @{ \$N[0] };

my @R = map[ (0) x @M ], 0 .. \$#N[ 0 ];

for my \$i ( 0 .. \$#M ) {
for my \$j ( 0 .. \$#{ \$N[0] } ) {
\$R[\$i][\$j] += \$M[\$i][\$_] * \$N[\$_][\$j] for 0 .. \$#N;
}
}
\$self->{R} = \@R;
}