The question as posted is whether or not SQLite is good enough to handle large amounts of data. The superficial answer is of course Yes. But, quite some time ago now, we moved away from "desktop database" topologies that were based on shared files – an offshoot from files that existed only on a single non-shared computer – and adopted the client/server model instead. Since every computer you'll actually encounter fully supports multiprogramming ... as earlier systems did not ... it is now a trivial matter to support a client/server capable database on your own computer. The advantage of this being that the topology requires no changes to become multi-user: "it already is."
SQLite just might be the penultimate advancement (IMHO) of "a filesystem-based database." It really is a remarkable, best-of-breed tool for its appointed, narrow, niche. But its technically-necessary design introduces issues that you might come to regret if your use-case grows in such a way that this requirement might very reasonably be expected to do. Hence my recommendation to instead use a local, but multi-user capable, daemon. Best to get off on the right foot, no matter what programming language/tool you are using.