Bod has asked for the wisdom of the Perl Monks concerning the following question:

After a server change, we are getting lots of strange characters from an encoding issue.
Double spaces and emojis are displayed as Â

I think this issue is related to the change from Perl version from 5.16.3 to 5.36.0. From the Perl Delta, I note there have been some changes to the way Perl handles UTF encoding, but I don't understand the implications of this.

We've also upgraded MariaDB from 10.5 to 10.11 but both the character set and the collation are the same. utf8mb4 and utf8mb4_general_ci respectively.

This issue is not just about data that was created prior to the change. Although emojis created after the change are not mutilated, double spaces are.

All web output is UTF8 encoded using:
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

Any suggestions where I should look to solve this issue.