in reply to Re^8: High Performance Game of Life in thread High Performance Game of Life
You need to run the following little test to catch any errors with negative x and y values before firing off any benchmarks:
# tgol.t  Simple blinker test of Conway Game of Life Organism class
use strict;
use warnings;
use Organism;
use Test::More;
my $nblinks = 5;
my $ntests = ( $nblinks + 1 ) * 3;
plan tests => $ntests;
sub test_one {
my $org = shift; # Organism handle
my $desc = shift; # Test description
my $expected = shift; # Array ref of (sorted) expected cells
my $nexpected = @{$expected};
my $ncells = $org>count();
my @cells = $org>get_live_cells();
cmp_ok( $ncells, '==', $nexpected, "$desc cell count ($ncells)" );
cmp_ok( scalar(@cells), '==', $nexpected, "$desc cell array count"
+);
is_deeply( \@cells, $expected, "$desc cell array" );
}
# Blinker pattern
my @blinker1 = (
[ 101, 100 ], [ 100, 100 ], [ 99, 100 ],
[ 101, 100 ], [ 100, 100 ], [ 99, 100 ],
[ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ], [ 1, 0 ],
[ 99, 100 ], [ 100, 100 ], [ 101, 100 ],
[ 99, 100 ], [ 100, 100 ], [ 101, 100 ],
);
my @blinker2 = (
[ 100, 99 ], [ 100, 100 ], [ 100, 101 ],
[ 100, 99 ], [ 100, 100 ], [ 100, 101 ],
[ 0, 1 ], [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ],
[ 100, 99 ], [ 100, 100 ], [ 100, 101 ],
[ 100, 99 ], [ 100, 100 ], [ 100, 101 ],
);
my @sblinker1 = sort { $a>[0] <=> $b>[0]  $a>[1] <=> $b>[1] } @b
+linker1;
my @sblinker2 = sort { $a>[0] <=> $b>[0]  $a>[1] <=> $b>[1] } @b
+linker2;
# Initialization
my $org = Organism>new();
$org>insert_cells(@blinker1);
test_one( $org, "initial", \@sblinker1 );
# Pattern should just blink back and forth
for my $i ( 1 .. $nblinks ) {
$org>tick();
test_one( $org, "blinker $i", $i % 2 ? \@sblinker2 : \@sblinker1 );
}
with the command line:
prove tgol.t
Unfortunately, your latest effort fails this test on my machine as shown below:
# Failed test 'initial cell count (11)'
# at tgol.t line 17.
# got: 11
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'initial cell array count'
# at tgol.t line 18.
# got: 11
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'initial cell array'
# at tgol.t line 19.
# Structures begin differing at:
# $got>[0][0] = '281474976710655'
# $expected>[0][0] = '101'
# Failed test 'blinker 1 cell count (10)'
# at tgol.t line 17.
# got: 10
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'blinker 1 cell array count'
# at tgol.t line 18.
# got: 10
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'blinker 1 cell array'
# at tgol.t line 19.
# Structures begin differing at:
# $got>[0][0] = '281474976710655'
# $expected>[0][0] = '100'
# Failed test 'blinker 2 cell count (11)'
# at tgol.t line 17.
# got: 11
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'blinker 2 cell array count'
# at tgol.t line 18.
# got: 11
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'blinker 2 cell array'
# at tgol.t line 19.
# Structures begin differing at:
# $got>[0][0] = '281474976710655'
# $expected>[0][0] = '101'
# Failed test 'blinker 3 cell count (9)'
# at tgol.t line 17.
# got: 9
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'blinker 3 cell array count'
# at tgol.t line 18.
# got: 9
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'blinker 3 cell array'
# at tgol.t line 19.
# Structures begin differing at:
# $got>[0][1] = '99'
# $expected>[0][1] = '101'
# Failed test 'blinker 4 cell count (9)'
# at tgol.t line 17.
# got: 9
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'blinker 4 cell array count'
# at tgol.t line 18.
# got: 9
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'blinker 4 cell array'
# at tgol.t line 19.
# Structures begin differing at:
# $got>[0][1] = '100'
# $expected>[0][1] = '100'
# Failed test 'blinker 5 cell count (8)'
# at tgol.t line 17.
# got: 8
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'blinker 5 cell array count'
# at tgol.t line 18.
# got: 8
# expected: 15
# Failed test 'blinker 5 cell array'
# at tgol.t line 19.
# Structures begin differing at:
# $got>[0][1] = '99'
# $expected>[0][1] = '101'
# Looks like you failed 18 tests of 18.
I left this tgol.t test program out of the root node because it was already way too long ... then forgot about it.
Sorry 'bout that. Update: I've now remedied my oversight by adding the tgol.t test program above to the root node.
Re^10: High Performance Game of Life
by marioroy (Priest) on Aug 13, 2017 at 22:07 UTC

Hi eyepopslikeamosquito. Yes, I've been running tgol2.t found here and it's been running fine. I can comfirm that bitmanipulation is failing with the new tgot2.t. The initial test script did not test for negative $y. Thus, assumed that $y was always positive. The bitmanipulation code will no longer work.
Okay, will comment readers to your post and strike out the bitmanipulation sections. Thank you for posting Extra Test Program tgol.t.
Update: For closure, I tested mapping supporting negative $x and $y. Pack('i2') is faster unless running cperl.
use strict;
use warnings;
use Time::HiRes qw(time);
my ( $x , $y , $iters ) = ( 890394, 100, 5_000_000 );
my ( $xx, $yy, $n );
##
# sub _pack {
# my ( $x, $y ) = @_;
# return
# $x < 0 ? ( abs($x) << 16  $y ) : $x << 16  $y;
# }
#
# sub _unpack {
# my ( $n ) = @_;
# return $n < 0
# ? ( ( abs($n) >> 16 ), abs($n) & 0xFFFF )
# : ( $n >> 16 , $n & 0xFFFF );
# }
##
bench( "bitops ", sub {
# map two integers $x and $y into $n
# support negative $x only
for ( 1 .. $iters ) {
$n = $x < 0 ? ( abs($x) << 16  $y ) : $x << 16  $y;
( $xx, $yy ) = $n < 0
? ( ( abs($n) >> 16 ), abs($n) & 0xFFFF )
: ( $n >> 16 , $n & 0xFFFF );
}
});
##
# sub _pack {
# my ( $x, $y ) = @_;
# # bits 0,1 indicate neg flag for $x,$y respectively
# return
# ( abs($x) << 18 ) + ( $x < 0 ? 1 : 0 ) +
# ( abs($y) << 2 ) + ( $y < 0 ? 2 : 0 );
# }
#
# sub _unpack {
# my ( $n ) = @_;
# # bits 0,1 indicate neg flag for $x,$y respectively
# return (
# $n & 0x1 ? ($n >> 18 ) : $n >> 18,
# $n & 0x2 ? ($n >> 2 & 0xFFFF) : $n >> 2 & 0xFFFF
# );
# }
##
bench( "bitops neg ", sub {
# map two integers $x and $y into $n
# support negative $x and $y
for ( 1 .. $iters ) {
$n = ( abs($x) << 18 ) + ( $x < 0 ? 1 : 0 ) +
( abs($y) << 2 ) + ( $y < 0 ? 2 : 0 );
( $xx, $yy ) = (
$n & 0x1 ? ($n >> 18 ) : $n >> 18,
$n & 0x2 ? ($n >> 2 & 0xFFFF) : $n >> 2 & 0xFFFF
);
}
});
bench( "(un)pack ii", sub {
for ( 1 .. $iters ) {
$n = pack 'ii', $x, $y;
( $xx, $yy ) = unpack 'ii', $n;
}
});
bench( "(un)pack i2", sub {
for ( 1 .. $iters ) {
$n = pack 'i2', $x, $y;
( $xx, $yy ) = unpack 'i2', $n;
}
});
exit;
sub bench {
my ( $start, $desc, $fcn ) = ( scalar time, @_ );
$fcn>();
printf "duration $desc %0.03f\n", time  $start;
}
Regards, Mario  [reply] [d/l] 

Update: Replaced bitOR with addition to have $x and $y line up for better readability.
This post is a fun study, comparing pack 'i2' against the mapping of two integers into one via bit manipulation. A use case for doing this is wanting readable keys for storing into a database using one field. This laptop runs an i7 Haswell at 2.6 GHz. Unfortunately, I do not have anything slower to run on.
bin/perl v5.26.0
$ perl createblinker.pl 500000 900000 100 >x.tmp 2>y.tmp
$ /opt/perl5.26.0/bin/perl I. tbench1.pl x.tmp 2 # pack i2
cell count at start = 1500000
run benchmark for 2 ticks
cell count at end = 1500000
time taken: 37 secs
time taken: 58 secs < 32bit Windows VM
$ /opt/perl5.26.0/bin/perl I. tbench1.pl x.tmp 2 # mapping
cell count at start = 1500000
run benchmark for 2 ticks
cell count at end = 1500000
time taken: 39 secs
time taken: 64 secs < 32bit Windows VM, applied 32bit tip below
bin/cperl v5.24.3c
$ /opt/cperl5.24.3c/bin/cperl I. tbench1.pl x.tmp 2 # pack i2
cell count at start = 1500000
run benchmark for 2 ticks
cell count at end = 1500000
time taken: 37 secs
$ /opt/cperl5.24.3c/bin/cperl I. tbench1.pl x.tmp 2 # mapping
cell count at start = 1500000
run benchmark for 2 ticks
cell count at end = 1500000
time taken: 38 secs
I used tybalt89's update and applied the mapping logic. All tests pass, thanks to new test script by eyepopslikeamosquito. Please ensure Perl is compiled with 64bit support. 16 bits hold the value for $y and 2 bits for whether $x,$y are less than 0. $x is stored in the remaining bits. This results in minimum key lenght as $y isn't big. Though, adjust accordingly the number of bits to shift and bitmask if necessary.
bits 6318 contains the $x value
bits 172 contains the $y value
bit 1 set when $y < 0
bit 0 set when $x < 0
On 32bit hardware, replace 18 and 0xFFFF with 10 and 0xFF throughout the module.
bits 3110 contains the $x value
bits 92 contains the $y value
bit 1 set when $y < 0
bit 0 set when $x < 0
Both _unpack and _pack are inlined inside tick for maximum performance.
package Organism;
use strict;
# use warnings;
sub _pack {
my ( $x, $y ) = @_;
# bits 0,1 negative flag for $x,$y respectively
return
( abs($x) << 18 ) + ( $x < 0 ? 1 : 0 ) +
( abs($y) << 2 ) + ( $y < 0 ? 2 : 0 );
}
sub _unpack {
my ( $n ) = @_;
# bits 0,1 negative flag for $x,$y respectively
return (
$n & 0x1 ? ($n >> 18 ) : $n >> 18,
$n & 0x2 ? ($n >> 2 & 0xFFFF) : $n >> 2 & 0xFFFF
);
}
sub count {
return scalar keys %{ shift>{Cells} };
}
# Input a list of [ x, y ] coords
sub insert_cells {
my $cells = shift>{Cells};
for my $r (@_) { $cells>{ _pack @{$r} } = undef }
}
# Return sorted list of cells in the Organism.
# Used for verification and testing the state of the organism.
sub get_live_cells {
sort { $a>[0] <=> $b>[0]  $a>[1] <=> $b>[1] }
map { [ _unpack $_ ] }
keys %{ shift>{Cells} };
}
sub tick {
my $self = shift;
my $cells = $self>{Cells};
my ( $k1, $k2, $k3, $k4, $k5, $k6, $k7, $k8,
$x0, $x1, $x2, $y0, $y1, $y2, %new_cells, %dead_cells );
for my $c (keys %{ $cells }) {
# Get the (up to 8) dead cells surrounding the cell
( $x0, $y0 ) = (
$c & 0x1 ? ($c >> 18 ) : $c >> 18,
$c & 0x2 ? ($c >> 2 & 0xFFFF) : $c >> 2 & 0xFFFF
);
( $x1, $x2, $y1, $y2 ) = ( $x0  1, $x0 + 1, $y0  1, $y0 + 1 );
$dead_cells{$_}++ for my @zcells = (
( $k1 = ( abs($x1) << 18 ) + ( $x1 < 0 ? 1 : 0 ) +
( abs($y1) << 2 ) + ( $y1 < 0 ? 2 : 0 )
) x !(exists $cells>{$k1}),
( $k2 = ( abs($x1) << 18 ) + ( $x1 < 0 ? 1 : 0 ) +
( abs($y0) << 2 ) + ( $y0 < 0 ? 2 : 0 )
) x !(exists $cells>{$k2}),
( $k3 = ( abs($x1) << 18 ) + ( $x1 < 0 ? 1 : 0 ) +
( abs($y2) << 2 ) + ( $y2 < 0 ? 2 : 0 )
) x !(exists $cells>{$k3}),
( $k4 = ( abs($x0) << 18 ) + ( $x0 < 0 ? 1 : 0 ) +
( abs($y1) << 2 ) + ( $y1 < 0 ? 2 : 0 )
) x !(exists $cells>{$k4}),
( $k5 = ( abs($x0) << 18 ) + ( $x0 < 0 ? 1 : 0 ) +
( abs($y2) << 2 ) + ( $y2 < 0 ? 2 : 0 )
) x !(exists $cells>{$k5}),
( $k6 = ( abs($x2) << 18 ) + ( $x2 < 0 ? 1 : 0 ) +
( abs($y1) << 2 ) + ( $y1 < 0 ? 2 : 0 )
) x !(exists $cells>{$k6}),
( $k7 = ( abs($x2) << 18 ) + ( $x2 < 0 ? 1 : 0 ) +
( abs($y0) << 2 ) + ( $y0 < 0 ? 2 : 0 )
) x !(exists $cells>{$k7}),
( $k8 = ( abs($x2) << 18 ) + ( $x2 < 0 ? 1 : 0 ) +
( abs($y2) << 2 ) + ( $y2 < 0 ? 2 : 0 )
) x !(exists $cells>{$k8})
);
# Check the live cell
# Note: next line equivalent to nlive == 2  nlive == 3
@zcells == 5  @zcells == 6 and $new_cells{$c} = undef;
}
$dead_cells{$_} == 3 and $new_cells{$_} = undef for keys %dead_cell
+s;
$self>{Cells} = \%new_cells;
}
sub new {
my $class = shift;
my %init_self = ( Cells => {} );
bless \%init_self, $class;
}
1;
Pack is faster, of course. However, mapping two integers into one is not far behind.
Regards, Mario
 [reply] [d/l] [select] 

I don't have access to a 64bit perl. However, this is a 32bit version
of combining two 16 bit integers into a 32 bit number. While this runs
as long as the coordinates are within range, I can't test it in the 64bit version.
I like it because all offsets are found with a simple addition inside tick.
All the encode/decode mess is in the input and output routines.
In theory (completely untested), all that's needed is to change the line
my $half = 16; # make 32 for 64bit perls
to
my $half = 32; # make 32 for 64bit perls
to make it use the full range of two 32 bit numbers.
So here's the code
package Organism;
use strict;
use warnings;
sub count {
return scalar keys %{ shift>{Cells} };
}
# Input a list of [ x, y ] coords
sub insert_cells {
my $self = shift;
my $cells = $self>{Cells};
for my $r (@_) { $cells>{
(($r>[0] + $self>{fudge}) << $self>{half}) 
($r>[1] + $self>{fudge})
} = undef }
}
# Return sorted list of cells in the Organism.
# Used for verification and testing the state of the organism.
sub get_live_cells {
my $self = shift;
sort { $a>[0] <=> $b>[0]  $a>[1] <=> $b>[1] }
map { [
($_ >> $self>{half})  $self>{fudge},
($_ & (1 << $self>{half})  1)  $self>{fudge}
] } keys %{ $self>{Cells} };
}
sub tick {
my $self = shift;
my $cells = $self>{Cells};
my @deltas = @{ $self>{deltas} };
my ( %new_cells, %dead_cells );
for my $c (keys %{ $cells }) {
# Get the (up to 8) dead cells surrounding the cell
$dead_cells{$_}++ for my @zcells =
grep !exists $cells>{$_}, map $c + $_, @deltas;
# Check the live cell
# Note: next line equivalent to nlive == 2  nlive == 3
@zcells == 5  @zcells == 6 and $new_cells{$c} = undef;
}
$dead_cells{$_} == 3 and $new_cells{$_} = undef for keys %dead_cell
+s;
$self>{Cells} = \%new_cells;
}
sub new {
my $class = shift;
my $half = 16; # make 32 for 64bit perls
my $base = 1 << $half;
my $fudge = $base >> 1;
my @deltas = ($base1, $base, $base+1,
1, 1, $base1, $base, $base+1);
my %init_self = ( Cells => {},
fudge => $fudge, half => $half, deltas => \@deltas );
bless \%init_self, $class;
}
1;
Preliminary testing with 16 bit numbers seemed to show it's about 10% slower than the pack version :(
 [reply] [d/l] [select] 




