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Run commands in parallel

by tilly (Archbishop)
on Aug 21, 2000 at 22:24 UTC ( #28870=snippet: print w/replies, xml ) Need Help??
Description: This is a demo of how to keep a series of I/O bound jobs running in parallel. Aside from the dependency on /dev/null, it should be completely portable.

Turn off $debug to make it silent. And if you think you see possible improvements, you likely do. :-)

Thanks to tye and jcwren I made it more portable by making the null data come from 'nul' under Windows. Note that if the parent is killed, spawned children will finish under both *nix and NT 4.0. I have not tested it on other platforms.

use Carp;
use strict;
use IPC::Open3;
use vars qw( $debug );
$debug = 1;

&run_parallel( 5, ['perl', '-e', 'die'], reverse map {"sleep $_"} 1..1

# The first parameter is how many jobs to run at once, the remaining a
# the jobs.  Jobs may be a string, or an anonymous array of the cmd an
# args.
# All output from children go to your STDERR and STDOUT.  They get no
# input.  It prints fairly uninformative errors for commands with
# problems, and returns a hash of problems.
# The jobs SHOULD NOT depend on each other!
sub run_parallel {
  my $job_count = shift;
  unless (0 < $job_count) {
    confess("run_parallel called without a positive parallel job count
  my @to_start = @_;
  my %running;
  my %errors;
  my $is_running = 0;
  while (@to_start or %running) {
    if (@to_start and ($is_running < $job_count)) {
      # Launch a job
      my $job = shift @to_start;
      unless (ref($job)) {
        $job = [$job];
      print "Launching '$job->[0]'\n" if $debug;
      local *NULL;
      my $null_file = ($^O =~ /Win/) ? 'nul': '/dev/null';   
      open (NULL, $null_file) or confess("Cannot read from $null_file:
+ $!");
      my $proc_id = open3("<&NULL", ">&STDOUT", ">&STDERR", @$job);
      $running{$proc_id} = $job;
    else {
      # collect a job
      my $proc_id = wait();
      if (! exists $running{$proc_id}) {
        confess("Reaped unknown process $proc_id!");
      elsif ($?) {
        # Oops
        my $job = $running{$proc_id};
        my ($cmd, @args) = @$job;
        my $err = "Running '$cmd' gave return code '$?'";
        if (@args) {
          $err .= join "\n\t", "\nAdditional args:", @args;
        print STDERR $err, "\n";
        $errors{$proc_id} = $err;
      print "Reaped '$running{$proc_id}->[0]'\n" if $debug;
      delete $running{$proc_id};
  return %errors;
Replies are listed 'Best First'.
RE: Run commands in parallel
by merlyn (Sage) on Aug 22, 2000 at 01:38 UTC
    I've got an elaborate version of this tied up in the vault for my Linux Magazine column. I prefork a bunch of children, then essentially do a remote procedure call on them, passing arbitary (well, Storable) data to and from the kids. Kids can also request additional tasks be queued.

    I say "in the vault" because it was published last month in the magazine, but I can't put it on my website for another two months. So, keep checking back!

    -- Randal L. Schwartz, Perl hacker

RE: Run commands in parallel
by tye (Sage) on Aug 22, 2000 at 22:26 UTC

    Check out File::Spec for a more portable way to get "/dev/null" (included with Perl 5.6).

            - tye (but my friends call me "Tye")
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