Concerning the number 30, you are correct, there's nothing particularly magical about it except that it's not too difficult to remember and it gives pretty good results for this general problem, i.e. if you want to be 95.8% sure that one of your randomly generated solutions is in the top 10% of all solutions, run 30 trials.
But to play with your equation, I submit the following:
use strict;
use warnings;
# We'd like to see the likelihood that by running a given number
# of trials that one of these trials gives a result in some top X%
# of all the possible results.
#
# As an example, suppose we need to generate a solution in the top
# 10% of all possible solutions, i.e. we want to exceed a "clip
# level" of 0.90. How many trials would we need to run to have an
# X% chance that one of those solutions out of all those trials is
# in that top 10%?
#
# Generating a simple little table shows us the percentage chance
# that one of those trials will be in that bracket. For a 95.8%
# chance that one of our trials is in the top 10%, our little
# table shows us that we'd need to run 30 trials.
#
# Running 31 trials would boost our likelihood of being in that
# top 10% by about 0.4%.
#
# Changing the clip level to 0.95 and upping our upper bound to
# 65 shows that running 62 trials would give us that 95.8%
# confidence of one of our trials being in that set of solutions
# in the 95100% range of best solutions. By running only 30
# trials, we'd only be 78.5% sure that one of our solutions is
# superior to 95% of all possible solutions.
my $want_soln_above_this_clip_level = 0.90;
my $min_no_trials = 15;
my $max_no_trials = 35;
my $value;
my $prev_value = 0;
foreach ( $min_no_trials .. $max_no_trials ) {
print "$_\t";
#printf("%.1f%%",100*(1.9**$_));
$value = 100*(1$want_soln_above_this_clip_level**$_);
printf("%.1f%%", $value);
print "\t";
printf("%.1f%%", $value  $prev_value);
print "\n";
$prev_value = $value;
}
__DATA__
15 79.4% 79.4%
16 81.5% 2.1%
17 83.3% 1.9%
18 85.0% 1.7%
19 86.5% 1.5%
20 87.8% 1.4%
21 89.1% 1.2%
22 90.2% 1.1%
23 91.1% 1.0%
24 92.0% 0.9%
25 92.8% 0.8%
26 93.5% 0.7%
27 94.2% 0.6%
28 94.8% 0.6%
29 95.3% 0.5%
30 95.8% 0.5%
31 96.2% 0.4%
32 96.6% 0.4%
33 96.9% 0.3%
34 97.2% 0.3%
35 97.5% 0.3%
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