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Push-style templating was defined by Terence Parr has in his seminal article. He also articulated the benefits of push-style templating, as well as defined the requirements for a system to be called as such. If the above paper seems a bit dense, there is now an HTML Template Entanglement survey which simplifies the criteria for a templating system to be push-style. HINT: JSP, Template Toolkit, HTML::Mason, Genshi, Mako, and pure PHP do not qualify as push-style systems. Those packages are an invitation to create Tag Soup, something that is impossible with push-style templating. The goal of this node is to record push-style templating systems, across languages. James Robson recently published an article on about his module Template::Recall which is similar to HTML::Seamstress.


written by Matt S Trout. similar to Template::Semantic but with more streaming capabilities
based on HTML::TreeBuilder
author is aware of push-style templating. Similar to Template::Simple by Uri Guttman.
by Skriptke
by Joachim Zobel (monk name: ElDiabolo)
inspired by Template::Refine and very similar to Amrita
by James Robson.. string-based.
Template Power
Perl port of the PHP package
by Sam Tregar string-based. Using the optional HTML::Template::Expr raises the entanglement index.
pure perl html generation
by Viacheslav Tykhanovskyi. Similar to Mustache
by Stefan Hornburg
by David Muir Sharnoff
Text::Haml and Text::Sass
based on the ruby HAML HTML shortcut language and SASS shortcut languages.
by Jason Moore.. string-based. The authors Perl module site (linked from his CPAN page) is currently down.
by Maxim Kashliak
XML::Twig or XML::Rules or even XML::LibXML
if you are into strict xHTML, you might like these
had brief friendly conversation with author



A good discussion of Python-based solutions occurred recently. And there have been others. One important thing that came out that thread is that my list of templating systems can be found here under "Engines with Annotated Templates".

It should also be noted that the Nagare web framework has updated meld3 with some enhancements.

name comments
Muntjac completely abstracts the client-side templating
Web elements Powerful. Concise.
meld3 based on elementTree
wt clean simple powerful system
Templess based on nanosax
Webstring uses elementTree or lxml underneath
HTMLTemplate HTMLParser
PyMeld internal


module comments
XMLC There is an Addison-Wesley text which documents this DOM-based module.
StringTemplate written by Terence Parr. Has Python and C# implementations as well.
JABHTS very well thought-out thesis project
Apache Tapestry A framework whose non-pluggable template system is push-style... I thought push-style was all about separation!


  1. Shibari.js
  2. HOE.js
  3. jQuery's Taconite
  4. Plates
  5. Sizlate


  1. Heist


summary review of ruby template systems
module comments
Ruby on Rails Through the AJAX interface, dom style rewrites are possible


  • Template Power definitely push-style.. theres also a Perl version
  • Smarty is the earliest PHP push-style approach.
  • Dwoo is an "evolution" of smarty
  • KoolPHP is an AJAX library that definitely is push-style
  • XmlTag is an html generation module for PHP, one of several. The author lists others.


Prolog Well-Formed Pages by Richard O'Keefe

In reply to Push style templating systems by metaperl

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