# 21-WS-Nanophysics

On the nanometer scale many materials exhibit size-dependent electronic, optical, and magnetic properties, which are governed by quantum mechanical effects. In this lecture, we will take the journey from three-dimensional, to two-dimensional, one-dimensional and zero-dimensional objects. Our main focus will lie on the understanding of their electronic properties. We will discuss experimental techniques to explore some of the exciting phenomena occuring in low-dimensional systems and explain the physical concepts.The lecture will proceed along the following chapters:

*Chapter 1: Repetition of Basic Solid State Physics*

- Band structure: free electron model, tight binding

- Density of states

*Chapter 2: Carbon-based materials*

- Graphene

- Carbon nanotubes

*Chapter 3: Semiconductor physics and device applications*

- Repetition of semiconductor physics

- Fundamentals of MOSFET devices

- Novel devices

*Chapter 4: 2-dimensional electron systems*

- 2D electron gas in electric and magnetic field

- Quantum Hall Effect (Landau levels,..)

*Chapter 5: 1-dimensional electron systems – quantum wires*

- Ballistic transport

- Landauer formula and scattering theory

- Quantum point contacts (MBJ measurement)

*Chapter 6: Quantum interference*

- Wave-particle duality

- Aharonov-Bohm effect

- Weak localisation

- Universal conductance fluctuations

*Chapter 7: Single electron effects and quantum dots*

- Coulomb blockade

- Single electron box and single electron transistor (Coulomb diamonds)

- Quantum dots (fabrication, “artificial atoms”)

*Chapter 8: Molecular electronics*

- Functions

- Contacting

- First test systems

*Chapter 9: Magnetism and magnetotransport in 2-dimensional structures*

- Introduction and background

- Interlayer Exchange coupling

- GMR/TMR

*Chapter 10: Magnetism in 0-dimension*

- Single magnetic atoms

- Kondo effect

**Starting dates:**

We will start with the first lecture on Monday, 18. October, 10:15 am in room 1.1.16 in Arnimallee 14.

The first excercise class will take place on Friday, 29. October, at 10:15 in room 1.4.03, seminar room T2 in Arnimalle 14.

**Lecture and exercises:**

The semester is scheduled for in-person meetings in the department. 3G rules apply for entering the building.

**Exercises:**

The exercises will comprise the discussion of recent literature related to the concepts explained in the lecture.

**Formalities:**

You need to register for the class via KVV and Campus Management.

**Suggested Literature:**

The Physics of Low-Dimensional Semiconductors - An Introduction, John H. Davies

Electron Transport in Mesoscopic Systems, Datta

Electron Transport in Nanostructures and Mesoscopic Devices, Thierry Ouisse

Mesoscopic Electronics in Solid State Nanostructures, Thomas Heinzel

**Exam: **

Oral exams during the last week of semester.