The following sets of audio clips are instructional aids to help Associate Members learn to differentiate varying beat rates. These samples are generated sine waves and only represent the theoretical beat rates often referred to in literature on tuning. These are only instructional aids and are not meant to represent the actual beat rates, or tonalities, that may be present in actual pianos. More important than recognizing actual beat rates is recognizing the approximate differences between slower and faster rates and the smoothness, or evenness, in their progression. One useful exercise with these tools is to play a given beat rate for two or three seconds, then play another one immediately afterwards, toggling between the two, thus giving one an idea of the differences.

Half beat per second .5 bps

One beat per second 1 bps

Two beats per second 2 bps

Three beats per second 3 bps

Four beats per second 4 bps

Five beats per second
5 bps

Six beats per second 6 bps

Seven beats per second
7 bps

Eight beats per second 8 bps

Nine beats per second 9 bps

Ten beats per second 10 bps

Eleven beats per second 11 bps

Twelve beats per second 12 bps

Thirteen beats per second 13 bps

Fourteen beats per second 14 bps

Four contiguous major thirds (CM3) in an F-A Equal Temperament and their theoretical beat speeds of 7, 9, 11, 14 bps.

Four contiguous major thirds (CM3) in an F-A Equal Temperament going up and back down again twice with their theoretical beat speeds of 7, 9, 11, 14, 11, 9, 7 bps.