The fundamental definition of an ORM I found is to hold data model inside an object system which is made persistent with a DB server.
That means mapping in one direction and the "data language" is limited to the semantics of the OOP model.
As you know, academic discussions about excact terminology are not my strong suit, so I don't think I can help much there...
> I thought several ORM frameworks are capable of that?
That would surprise me.
I checked, Hibernate is (one of) the framework(s) I worked with years ago, and there are tools to both generate class definitions from the database and generate database definitions from a class structure (I assume the former is less common).