in reply to quotes substitution
It is not clear for me what you want to accomplish, but generally use HTML::Entities to process html entities:
use strict; use warnings; use HTML::Entities; my $line="” 3&rdquo;"; decode_entities ($line);
If this module is of no help, please, try to give a step backwards and explain the kind of conversions you want to be done
$line="” 3 &rdquo;"; $line =~ s/(?:&|&\;)rdquo;/'/g; print "$line\n";
' 3 '