I'm going to leave Part C alone for now. It's a bit of a bear.
I will tell you that "&" is optional only when you call a subroutine with parentheses. For example, subroutine();. In this case, no "&" is needed. But try changing line 7 to plain old "subroutine;" and you will see that the script fails with an error.
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| < || < |
| > || > |
| [ || [ |
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